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JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

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8 "Zolpidem"
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Comparative Analysis of decreased Mental state Patients after Overdose with Sedative-hypnotics
Seung Jae Oh, Soo Hyung Cho, So Yeon Ryu
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(1):8-14.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.1.8
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Purpose: This study was undertaken to investigate how sedative-hypnotics affect the occurrence and severity of the patient's symptoms. In addition, we conducted a study to determine the type of patients who reacted severely and required hospitalization; patients were accordingly classified as hospitalized patients and patients discharged from the emergency room. Methods: From January 2017 to December 2019, we investigated the demographics, drug information, history, laboratory tests, and severity of patients who visited our emergency department and were diagnosed with benzodiazepine, zolpidem, and doxylamine succinate overdose. We further compared details of hospitalized patients and discharged patients. Results: Subjects who had overdosed and visited the ED included 120 for benzodiazepine, 147 for zolpidem, and 27 for doxylamine succinate. Comparisons between the three groups revealed differences in their early diagnosis, psychiatric history, and sleep disturbance. Differences between groups were also determined for mental state, poisoning history, treatment received in the intensive care unit, and intubation and ventilator support. In cases of benzodiazepine overdose, we obtained a high hospitalization rate (40.0%), admission to the intensive care unit (24.2%), and intubation rate (18.3%). Comparisons between hospitalized patients and discharged groups showed differences in transferred patients, early diagnosis, and mental state. Conclusion: Patients poisoned by sedative-hypnotics are increasing every year. In cases of benzodiazepine and zolpidem, the hospitalization rates were high, and benzodiazepine overdose resulted in hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, and pneumonia in a majority of cases. Therefore, active treatment and quick decisions in the emergency room are greatly required.
Comparison of medical history based diagnosis and urine test using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in drug overdose
Ja-Young Lee, Kyungman Cha, Won Jung Jeong, Hyung Min Kim, Byung Hak So
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.1.1
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Purpose: In patients with acute drug overdose, identification of drugs ingested is crucial to make a precise diagnosis. In most cases, the diagnoses are made on the medical history and physical examination findings. This study was undertaken to determine the concordance of diagnosis made on the basis of patient history by comparing it with urine toxicology analysis. Methods: This was a retrospective study of drug intoxicated patients over 18 years old who presented to the emergency center from 2017 to 2019. Specimens from urine were tested using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TMS). The test results were compared with information obtained from patients. Diagnostic concordances for drug detection in intoxicated patients were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between clinical characteristics and diagnostic discrepancy. Results: Totally, 370 patients were included in the analysis. Overall, 66 types of drugs were detected by UPLC-TMS. The drugs detected most frequently were zolpidem (104, 27.8%), citalopram (70, 18.7%), and paracetamol (66, 17.6%). The mean diagnostic concordance of patients was 52.7%. There were statistically significant diagnostic discrepancies in patients with underlying depression and patients intoxicated with multiple types of drugs. Conclusion: In ED patients with acute drug overdose, the diagnoses made on history alone were often inaccurate. It is essential to perform urine toxicology tests such as UPLC-TMS as a confirmatory instrument to improve accuracy in evaluating patients with drug intoxication.
Zolpidem Detection and Blood Level in Acute Poisoning-suspected Patients in Emergency Departments: Review of 229 Cases
Jaehyung Yu, Hanseok Chang, Sinae Won, Jeonghun Yeom, Arum Lee, Na-Youn Park, Bum Jin Oh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(2):118-125.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.2.118
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Purpose: Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drugs (including zolpidem) are associated with an increased risk of suicide and suicidal ideation. Considering the wide usage of zolpidem, this drug should be considered a possible etiology for stupor or coma in any patient exposed to this drug. However, there are no reports on zolpidem blood levels in emergency department patients in Korea. We therefore reviewed the analyzed data of a toxicology laboratory at one university affiliated hospital. Methods: The sex, age, chief symptoms, suspiciousness of poisoning, and presumption of poison were analyzed from January 2018 to June 2019. The detection frequency and level of zolpidem in the patient blood were compared to the mental changes presented, which is the main consequence of zolpidem. Results: A total of 229 toxicological analyses, requested to a toxicological laboratory at one university affiliated hospital, were reviewed. Among 229 patients, the mean age was 54.3±20.7 years old with 113 women and 116 men. 8.7% of patients have psychiatric illness and 39.7% were poisoned intentionally. The chief symptoms detected were: mental change 55.0%, gastrointestinal 14.4%, cardiovascular 10.5%, focal neurological 7.4%, respiratory 3.5%, none 8.7%, and unknown 0.4%. A request for detailed reports revealed that causative poisons were specified only in 20.1% cases. Zolpidem was detected in 22.3% cases (51/229), with median blood level 1.26 mg/L (interquartile 0.1, 5.06 mg/L) and urine 0.90 mg/L (interquartile 0.11, 5.6 mg/L). Furthermore, zolpidem was more frequently detected in toxicology analysis of patients where mental change was the primary symptom, as compared to other symptoms (32.5% vs. 9.7%, p<0.01). Conclusion: This study reported the blood level of zolpidem in suspected poisoning patients admitted to the emergency department.
Analysis of Death Due to Poisoning in the National Capital Region (2014-2016)
Meejung Park, Jongsin Park, Sangki Lee, Sangwhan In
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):101-106.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.101
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Purpose: This study examined the patterns of drugs, poisons, and chemicals detected in autopsy samples performed in the Seoul Institute and other regional forensic offices of the National Forensic Service (NFS) between 2014 and 2016. Methods: The investigation carried out using the laboratory information management system. Forensic toxicological identification and quantitation were performed in autopsy samples, including heart blood, peripheral blood, liver, kidney, vitreous humor and etc. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to analyze the drugs and poisons. Results: Forensic autopsies were performed on 9,674 cases in this period. Based on the autopsy reports, 699 cases (7.2%) were considered as unnatural deaths caused by fatal intoxication. The number of male deaths was higher than that of female deaths, with the age of 50-59 being the most common age group. Conclusion: Drugs comprised the largest number of deaths due to poison, followed by alcohol, agrochemicals, drug with alcohol, carbon monoxide, and cyanide, in that order. Zolpidem was the most frequently used drug in all drug-related intoxication cases.
Comparison of Prescription Patterns and Clinical Features according to Clinical Departments in Sedative-hypnotic Intoxication
Do Min Kim, Won Bin Park, Yong Su Lim, Jin Joo Kim, Jae Ho Jang, Jee Yong Jang, Hyuk Jun Yang, Geun Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2014;12(2):54-62.   Published online December 31, 2014
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare prescription patterns and clinical features according to clinical departments in sedative-hypnotic intoxication. Methods: This was a retrospective study of histories, substances of poisoning, acquisition routes, clinical courses, and outcomes of patients treated for acute intoxication in a single emergency medical center from January, 2011 to December, 2013. Results: A total of 769 patients were treated for acute intoxication, 281 patients ingested sedative hypnotics during the study period. Among 281 patients, 155 patients were prescribed by psychiatric department and 80 patients were prescribed by non-psychiatric department. Benzodiazepines were more likely to be prescribed by psychiatrists, and zolpidem was preferred by non-psychiatrists (p<0.001). Non-psychiatrists were more likely to prescribe short acting benzodiazepines than psychiatrists (p<0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the clinical outcomes, including prevalence of admission to ICU, ventilator care, and length of stay in ICU. In patients prescribed by non-psychiatrists, there were more patients prescribed without psychiatric diagnosis and diagnosed as major depression disorder after hospitalization. Conclusion: To promote rational prescribing of sedative hypnotics, proper psychiatric evaluation should be performed before prescribing, and educational programs including the contents of interactions and side effects of sedative hypnotics are needed.
A Case of Seizures after Zolpidem Withdrawal
Hyung Jun Moon, Jung Won Lee, Byeong Dae Yoo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(2):127-129.   Published online December 31, 2013
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The imidazopyridine, zolpidem, a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug, is widely-prescribed for insomnia. It is regarded as a good alternative to benzodiazepine because of the reduced possibility for abuse and development of dependence. However, more recently, due to the reduced possibility for abuse and development of dependence, it is regarded as a good alternative to benzodiazepine. adverse effects of zolpidem have been recognized. The objective of this report is to provide information on the potential for occurrence of benzodiazepine-like withdrawal seizure in patients who chronically take zolpidem continually. We present and discuss a case of seizure after sudden interruption of the protracted use of an abusively high dose of zolpidem. Zolpidem may not be the ideal drug for longterm pharmacotherapeutic management of insomnia. Clinicians should administer zolpidem at a low-dose for a short period of time for prevention of drug abuse and dependence and the potential for occurrence of benzodiazepine- like withdrawal seizure.
Emergency Cesarean Section Rescue of a Fetus from Maternal Severe Drug Intoxication
Jung-Geun Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(1):44-46.   Published online June 30, 2009
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Herein, we report a case of emergency cesarean section after severe maternal drug intoxication in late pregnancy. At a 38-week-gestation, a 32-year-old woman with a 10-year history of bipolar disorder took olanzapine (200 mg), diazepam (20 mg), and zolpidem (200 mg) as part of a suicidal attempt. Given her unconscious state and the evident concern regarding the toxic effects of the drugs on the fetus, a cesarean section was performed immediately. The patient gave birth to a male baby with Apgar scores of 5 at 1 and 8 at 5 minutes. The baby showed dyspnea and decreased activity directly after birth. After supportive care, the condition of both mother and baby improved and both were discharged.
Clinical Characteristics of Acute Zolpidem Intoxication
Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Eun-Kyung Eo, Young-Jin Cheon, Koo-Young Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(2):91-98.   Published online December 31, 2008
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Purpose: The hypnotic effect of zolpidem is comparable to benzodiazepines, but has less abuse and addiction potential than benzodiazepines, so is one of the most commonly prescribed hypnotics. The frequency of acute zolpidem overdose has increased, but clinical analysis and severity predictors are not known in Korea. Methods: A retrospective evaluation of histories, clinical courses, and laboratory findings of each patient treated from June, 2000, to May, 2006, in a university hospital for acute zolpidem intoxication. Results: We evaluated 30 patients, including 16 co-intoxication cases. Twenty-five patients presented mental alterations but became alert within 2 days. All patients recovered completely. The median zolpidem concentration was 0.9 mg/L (range: $0.2{sim}7.4;mg/L$). There was a weak correlation between the amount ingested and zolpidem concentration (r=0.25). None of them presented severe laboratory abnormalities, and these abnormalities did not relate to zolpidem concentration. Conclusion: The clinical progress of acute zolpidem intoxication is mild. We could not predict zolpidem concentration or clinical severity from the amount ingested and could not predict the clinical course from laboratory findings in the emergency department.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology