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JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

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6 "Screening"
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Assessment of early nutritional state in critical patients with intoxication and the effect of nutritional status on prognosis
Dong-wan Ko, Sangcheon Choi, Young-gi Min, Hyuk jin Lee, Eun Jung Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):93-99.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.93
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Purpose: Nutritional status and support in critically ill patients are important factors in determining patient recovery and prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the early nutritional status and the methods of nutritional support in critically ill patients with acute poisoning and to evaluate the effect of nutritional status on prognosis. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in tertiary care teaching hospital from January 2018 to December 2020. in an emergency department of university hospital, 220 patients who were stayed more than 2 days of poisoning in intensive care unit were enrolled. Results: 155 (70.5%) of patients with acute poisoning had low-risk in nutritional risk screening (NRS). Patients with malignancy had higher NRS (low risk 5.2%, moderate risk 18.5%, high risk 13.2%, p=0.024). Patients of 91.4% supplied nutrition via oral route or enteral route. Parenteral route for starting method of nutritional support were higher in patients with acute poisoning of herbicide or pesticide (medicine 3.2%, herbicide 13.8%, pesticide 22.2%, p=0.000). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, herbicide or pesticide intoxication, higher risk in NRS and sequential organ failure assessment over 4.5 were affecting factor on poor recovery at discharge. Conclusion: NRS in patients intoxicated with herbicide or pesticide were higher than that in patients intoxicated with medicine intoxication. Enteral nutrition in patients intoxicated with herbicide or pesticide was less common. Initial NRS was correlated with recovery at discharge in patient with intoxication. It is expected to be helpful in finding patients with high-risk nutritional status in acute poisoning patients and establishing a treatment plan that can actively implement nutritional support.
Availability of urine toxicologic screening tests in the emergency department: focused on illegal drugs
Se Kyu Lee, Sangchun Choi
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(1):24-30.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.1.24
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Purpose: In Korea, it is predicted that the proportion of drug abusers among patients visiting the emergency room will soon increase. Several emergency medical institutions in Korea are conducting field urine screening tests for poisoning. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and usefulness of urine toxicology screening tests. Methods: The medical records of patients with positive results for tetrahydrocannabinol and methamphetamine from urine toxicology screening tests at a tertiary university hospital from August 2016 to August 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. The subjects were classified into positive and false-positive groups, and their clinical characteristics were compared and analyzed. Results: Of the 2,026 patients surveyed, 823 patients (40.6%) tested positive for one or more drugs. Among them, 12 cases (0.6%) were positive for methamphetamine and 40 cases (2.0%) were positive for tetrahydrocannabinol. The positive and the false-positive rates for methamphetamine were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. The positive and the false-positive rates for tetrahydrocannabinol were 2.5% and 97.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Methamphetamine showed a relatively low false-positive rate in our study. Therefore, this test seemed to assist in diagnosing methamphetamine poisoning when considered together with the present illness and physical examination results. On the other hand, the high false-positive rate for tetrahydrocannabinol tests indicates that this test was unlikely to assist in diagnosing tetrahydrocannabinol poisoning. However, considering the growing trend of illegal drug abusers in Korea, it may still be useful as a diagnostic tool for identifying drug users.
Severity Predictors of Elderly Poisoning Patients Admitted to an Emergency Medical Center
Chang Yong Park, Kyung Man Cha, Byung Hak So, Won Jung Jeong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(2):94-101.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.2.94
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Purpose: This study examined the clinical characteristics of severe elderly poisoning patients to determine the factors that can prevent them. Methods: Data were collected from patients over 65 years of age presenting to the emergency center with poisoning from 2013 to 2018. Their medical records were analyzed retrospectively, and patients with a poisoning severity score of three or more were defined as the severe poisoning group. The risk factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: This study analyzed 292 patients, of whom 37 (12.7%) belonged to the severe poisoning group. The severe poisoning group showed a significantly higher association with pesticide poisoning and intentional suicide attempts. Loneliness and somatization were the cause of the suicidal ideas. No significant differences in age, sex, drinking, ingestion time, poisonous materials other than pesticides, and neuropsychological consultation were observed between the two groups. Conclusion: The severe elderly poisoning patients were the result of intentional poisoning for suicide. Loneliness and somatization were the most influential causes of suicidal poisoning. Therefore, psychiatric screening and frequent medical treatment for elderly people are required to prevent severe poisoning in elderly patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
    Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 1.     CrossRef
Risk Factors of Delirium in ICU Patients with Acute Poisoning
Hee Yeon Kim, Kyung Man Cha, Byung Hak So
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(1):14-20.   Published online June 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.1.14
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Purpose: This study estimated the incidence of delirium and associated risk factors and outcomes in ICU patients with acute poisoning. Methods: Data were collected from ICU patients over 18 years of age that were admitted via the emergency center after presenting with poisoning from 2010 to 2015. Delirium was assessed retrospectively using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC). Risk factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 199 patients participated in this study and 68 (34.2%) were diagnosed with delirium based on the ICDSC score. The delirium group showed a significantly higher association with prolonged length of stay in the hospital and ICU in comparison with the non-delirium group. The delirium group was associated with greater use of physical restraint. A statistically greater number of patients with pharmaceutical substance poisoning developed delirium over a short period of time than those with non-pharmaceutical substance poisoning. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to age, sex, past history, GCS score, vital signs, application of ventilator care and renal replacement therapy. Conclusion: The finding that the delirium group had a greater length of stay in both the hospital and the ICU is consistent with the results of previous worldwide studies of the effects of delirium on the prognosis of patients who were admitted to the ICU, suggesting the possibility for domestic application. Additionally, use of physical restraint was positively related to the incidence of delirium. Thus, interventions for minimizing the use of physical restraints and considering alternatives are needed.
A Clinical Review of Patients Who Visited Emergency Medical Center with Positive Methamphetamine Tests: A Single Institute Study
Young Bin Ok, Jin Yong Kim, Kyeong Ryong Lee, Dae Young Hong, Kwang Je Baek, Sang O Park, Jong Won Kim, Sin Young Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):25-32.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.25
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Purpose: Methamphetamine is an ongoing illegal drug problem worldwide, and its use in South Korea has spread over the last few years. In this study, a clinical review of patients who visited emergency medical centers with positive methamphetamine tests was conducted. Methods: Patients underwent methamphetamine screening based on physician suspicion over a period of 13 years. Their patient characteristics, clinical features, and drug administration properties were described. Results: A total of 297 patients were included, with 19 positive methamphetamine results. Patient age ranged from 21 to 84, with a mean of 37.52. Additionally, 13 were male and 6 were female. The mean BP, PR, RR were 131/82 mmHg, 94/min, 20/min. Saturation levels were all over 95%. Five patients had a psychiatric history. Patient showed varied symptoms ranging from mental changes to chest discomfort. In addition, seven showed abnormal electrocardiography findings and one showed elevated cardiac enzyme levels. Other laboratory results revealed no significantly abnormal results. Six patients also suffered from related trauma. The majority of patients consumed the methamphetamine orally, with unknown motivation at unknown locations. Most were transported by 119 and six patients co-ingested other drugs. Conclusion: Patients who showed positive results to a methamphetamine screening test in Korea visited the emergency medical center mostly by 119 and were unaware of or reluctant to reveal the fact that they had ingested methamphetamine. Emergency physicians should be more aware of the possibility that a patient may have consumed methamphetamine.
Availability of Toxicologic Screening Tests in the Emergency Department
In-Kyung Um, Jong-Su Park, Kap-Su Han, Han-Jin Cho, Sung-Hyuck Choi, Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2011;9(1):26-29.   Published online June 30, 2011
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Purpose: The role of a point of care test (POCT) is currently becoming important when treating patients and making decisions in the emergency department. It also plays a role for managing patients presenting with drug intoxication. But the availability of the test has not yet been studied in Korea. Therefore, we investigated the utility and the availability of POCT for drug screening used in the emergency department. Methods: This was a retrospective study for those patients with drug intoxication between January 2007 and December 2010 in an urban emergency department. Results: Between the study period, 543 patients were examined with a Triage$^{(R)}$-TOX Drug Screen. Among those, 248 (45.7%) patients showed negative results and 295 (54.3%) patients showed positive results. The sensitivity of the test for benzodiazepine, acetaminophen and tricyclic antidepressants were 85.9%, 100%, 79.2%, respectively. Conclusion: POCT of drug screening in emergency department showed good accuracy especially in patient with benzodiazepine, acetaminophen and tricyclic antidepressant intoxication. Therefore, it can be useful diagnostic tool for the management of intoxicated patients.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology