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24 "Rhabdomyolysis"
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Rhabdomyolysis induced by venomous snake bite
Lee Jungho, Moon Jeongmi, Chun Byeongjo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(2):51-57.   Published online December 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.2.51
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Purpose: Despite previous studies reporting the development of rhabdomyolysis (RM), this affliction tends to be neglected as an envenomation sign in South Korea. The current retrospective study investigates the prevalence and prognosis of RM after a snakebite. We further searched for predictors of snakebite-induced RM, which can be observed at presentation. Methods: This study included 231 patients who presented to the ED within 24 hours after a snakebite. The patients were classified according to the severity of RM, and the data, comprising baseline characteristics and clinical course including the level of creatine kinase (CK), were collected and compared according to the severity of RM. Results: The prevalence of RM and severe RM were determined to be 39% and 18.5%, respectively. Compared to the group without RM or with mild RM, the group with severe RM had a higher grade of local swelling, a higher frequency of acute kidney injury and neurotoxicity, and a greater need for renal replacement therapy and vasopressor administration. However, the incidence of acute renal injury in the RM group was 7.7%, with two patients needing renal replacement therapy. No mortalities were reported at discharge. Results of the multinomial logistic regression model revealed that the WBC levels are significantly associated with the risk of severe RM. Conclusion: RM should be considered the primary clinical sign of snake envenomation in South Korea, although it does not seem to worsen the clinical course. In particular, physicians should pay attention to patients who present with leukocytosis after a snakebite, which indicates the risk of developing RM, regardless of the CK level at presentation.
Effect on blood heavy metal concentration in gas poisoning by combustion of ignition coal: Pilot study
Sang Hwan Lee, Juncheol Lee, Yongil Cho, Byuk Sung Ko, Jaehoon Oh, Hyunggoo Kang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):127-132.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.127
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Purpose: It is known that the most common cause of gas poisoning in Korea is suicide attempts by burning ignition coals. Ignition coals are made from waste wood, and studies have been reported that heavy metals are emitted when this coal is burned. However, there was no study on how much heavy metal poisoning occurs in the human body through this, so this study was planned to find out whether the concentration of heavy metals in the blood increased in patients exposed to ignition coal combustion. Methods: From April 2020 to April 2021, blood lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations were investigated in carbon monoxide poisoning patients who visited one regional emergency medical center in Seoul, and their association with exposure time, source of poisoning, and rhabdomyolysis were investigated. Results: During the study period, a total of 136 carbon monoxide poisoning patients were tested for heavy metals, and 81 cases of poisoning by ignition coal were reported. When comparing poisoning caused by combustion of ignition coal and other substances, there was no difference in the concentrations of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the blood, and there was no difference in the number of patients above the reference range. However, the patients exposed to more than 5 hours of ignition coal gas exposure are more frequent than those in the group less than 5 hours in lead (51.4% vs. 23.9%, p=0.012). Conclusion: Compared to poisoning with other combustible substances, the blood concentration of lead, mercury, and cadmium does not increase further in patients with gas poisoning by ignition coal. However, prolonged exposure may result in elevated levels of lead.
Use of succimer as an alternative antidote in copper sulfate poisoning: A case report
Sang Kyoon Han, Sung Wook Park, Young Mo Cho, Il Jae Wang, Byung Kwan Bae, Seok Ran Yeom, Soon Chang Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(1):59-63.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.1.59
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Copper sulfate is widely used as a fungicide and pesticide. Acute copper sulfate poisoning is rare but potentially lethal in severe cases. Copper sulfate can lead to cellular damage of red blood cells, hepatocytes, and myocytes. Toxic effects include intravascular hemolysis, acute tubular necrosis and, rhabdomyolysis. A 76-year-old man presented with vomiting and epigastric pain. He had ingested a copper-containing fungicide (about 13.5 g of copper sulfate) while attempting suicide 2 hours prior to presentation. From day 3 at the hospital, laboratory findings suggesting intravascular hemolysis were noted with increased serum creatinine level. He was treated with a chelating agent, dimercaptosuccinic acid (succimer). His anemia and acute kidney injury gradually resolved with a 19-day regimen of succimer. Our case suggests that succimer can be used for copper sulfate poisoning when other chelating agents are not available.
Delayed death after chlorfenapyr poisoning
Jang Young Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(1):51-54.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.1.51
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Chlorfenapyr is a widely used insecticide, that is very lethal if ingested. It exhibits delayed toxicity in which there are few symptoms at first which suddenly worsen after a few days. A 66-year-old female patient ingested about 90 mL of chlorfenapyr liquid hydrating agent (Chlofenapyr 10%) and showed stable vital signs with no specific symptoms and findings other than a mild fever, vomiting, and nausea. From the 3rd day of ingestion, creatine kinase was high, and rhabdomyolysis was suspected. From the 4th day of ingestion, pancreatic enzymes began to gradually increase. A diffusion-weighted image showed a multifocal high signal intensity in the white matter and corpus callosum area. On the 8th day after ingestion, she suffered a high fever and a heart attack and died. Thus, if a patient is suspected of taking chlorfenapyr, he/she needs active treatment and monitoring even if he/she does not exhibit any symptoms.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Fatal Case of Chlorfenapyr Poisoning and the Therapeutic Implications of Serum Chlorfenapyr and Tralopyril Levels
    Ming-Jin Chung, Yan-Chiao Mao, Chia-Tien Hsu, Mu-Chi Chung, Tsai-Jung Wang, Tung-Min Yu, Po-Yu Liu, Pin-Kuei Fu, Chia-Ming Hsieh
    Medicina.2022; 58(11): 1630.     CrossRef
Survival after Cardiac Arrest due to Acute Methamphetamine Poisoning: A Case Report
You Ho Mun, Jung Ho Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):176-180.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.176
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Drug abuse and its related problems are increasing continuously in Korea. One of the most frequently abused drugs is methamphetamine, but there are few medical report in Korea. This is the first report of the identification of methamphetamine in the blood of a patient who had a return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest and survived discharge. A 33-year-old male arrived at the emergency department presenting with chest pain and dyspnea. He had ingested methamphetamine and alcohol approximately 7 hours before arrival. One hour after arrival, he had seizure followed by cardiac arrest. Spontaneous circulation was recovered after 4 minutes of CPR. An analysis of the National Forensic Service identified plasma methamphetamine with an estimated average concentration of plasma methamphetamine at the time of arrival of 0.6 mg/L, a lethal dose. He had rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury but survived after continuous renal replacement therapy. Since then, he has suffered chronic kidney disease, and he is being followed up at the out-patient department. In Korea, although drug abuse is still uncommon, it is on the increase. Therefore, emergency physicians should be aware of the clinical characteristics of methamphetamine poisoning.
Clinical Analysis of Acute Endosulfan Poisoning: Single Center Experience
So Eun Kim, Su Ik Kim, Jae Baek Lee, Young Ho Jin, Tae Oh Jeong, Si On Jo, Jae Chol Yoon
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):71-77.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Purpose: Acute endosulfan poisoning is rare but causes significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study is to describe complications and features of seizure and determine factors associated with mortality in acute endosulfan poisoning. Methods: Twenty-eight adult patients with acute endosulfan poisoning admitted to our emergency department during a 15-year period were studied retrospectively. The clinical features of seizure, use of antiepileptic drugs during seizure, and hospital courses were evaluated. Clinical factors between survived group and non-survived group were compared for identification of factors associated with mortality. Results: Of the 28 patients with endosulfan poisoning, 4 patients (14.3%) died and 15 (53.6%) patients developed generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Thirteen patients (46.4%) and 5 patients (17.9%) progressed to status epilepticus (SE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE), respectively. SE and RSE were associated with mortality. Almost all significant complications including shock, acute renal failure, hepatic toxicity, rhabdomyolysis, and cardiac injury developed in SE and RSE patients. Conclusion: SE and RSE were important contributors to death in endosulfan poisoning. Emergency physicians treating endosulfan poisoning should make an effort not to progress seizure following endosulfan poisoning to SE and RSE using a rapid and aggressive antiepileptic drug.
Motor Peripheral Neuropathy Involved Bilateral Lower Extremities Following Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: A Case Report
Jae-Hyung Choi, Hoon Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):46-49.   Published online June 30, 2015
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Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is a leading cause of severe neuropsychological impairments. Peripheral nerve injury has rarely been reported. Following are brief statements describing the motor peripheral neuropathy involved bilateral lower extremities of a patient who recovered following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. After inhalation of smoke from a fire, a 60-year-old woman experienced bilateral leg weakness without edema or injury. Neurological examination showed diplegia and deep tendon areflexia in lower limbs. There was no sensory deficit in lower extremities, and no cognitive disturbances were detected. Creatine kinase was normal. Electroneuromyogram patterns were compatible with the diagnosis of bilateral axonal injury. Clinical course after normobaric oxygen and rehabilitation therapy was marked by complete recovery of neurological disorders. Peripheral neuropathy is an unusual complication of CO intoxication. Motor peripheral neuropathy involvement of bilateral lower extremities is exceptional. Various mechanisms have been implicated, including nerve compression secondary to rhabdomyolysis, nerve ischemia due to hypoxia, and direct nerve toxicity of carbon monoxide. Prognosis is commonly excellent without sequelae. Emergency physicians should understand the possible-neurologic presentations of CO intoxication and make a proper decision regarding treatment.
A Case of Delayed Carbon Monoxide Encephalopathy
Sung Hyun Yun, Hyun Min Jung, Hwan Seok Kang, Ji Hye Kim, Seung Baik Han, Jun Sig Kim, Jin Hui Paik
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(1):41-45.   Published online June 30, 2013
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Following are brief statements about the delayed encephalopathy of a patient who recovered without disturbance of consciousness after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. A 72-year-old male was found without consciousness at home and then visited the ER center. Later we learned that the patient was using briquettes as a household heating source. Blood carbon monoxide hemoglobin level was 17.5%. As carbon monoxide poisoning was uncertain after the first interview with the patient, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was not administered at the early stage. After supplying 100% oxygen, the patient recovered consciousness, however, the strength of the lower limb muscle had decreased to class II. The patient showed continued weakening of the lower limb muscle and an increase of CPK; therefore, he was diagnosed as carbon monoxide intoxication and rhabdomyolysis and then admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for conservative treatment. During the hospitalization period, continued weakening of the lower limb muscle was observed and he was diagnosed as myopathy after EMG/MCV. However, he suddenly showed altered mentality on the 20th day of hospitalization, and underwent brain MRI. T2 weighted MRI showed typically high signal intensity of both globus pallidus and periventricular white matter; therefore, he was diagnosed as delayed carbon monoxide encephalopathy. This case showed delayed encephalopathy accompanied by rhabdomyolysis and myopathy of a patient who recovered without disturbance of consciousness.
A Case of Bentazone Poisoning Mimicking Organophosphate Intoxication
Hyun-Min Jung, Ji-Hye Kim, Seung-Baik Han, Jin-Hui Paik, Ji-Yoon Kim, Jun-Sig Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2010;8(2):122-124.   Published online December 31, 2010
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$Basagran^{(R)}$ is a herbicide that is widely used in the field and it acts by interfering with photosynthesis in plants. It consists of bentazone, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and surfactants. Bentazone is commonly used, but poisoning due to Bentazone has not been previously reported in Korea. The patients with toxic effects of bentazone show mild to severe symptoms and various complications. We report here on a case of a woman who intentionally ingested 500 ml of $Basagran^{(R)}$ and she was discharged without complication. As soon as the patient visited the emergency department, we started to treat her as if she had organophosphate intoxication because of the cholinergic symptoms. We could not detect the bentazone in her serum and urine, and we could confirm $Basagran^{(R)}$ ingestion only after getting information from her husband. Bentazone poisoning may induce harmful complications like muscle rigidity, rhabdomyolysis, respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. A detailed history taking, an accurate analysis method and early conservative management will be helpful for patients with acute bentazone poisoning.
Comparative Analysis of Overdose with Common Sleep-aid Medications - Doxylamine vs Diphenhydramine -
Hyun-Sik Ryu, Mi-Jin Lee, Seong-Soo Park, Won-Joon Jeong, Hyun-Jin Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2010;8(2):79-87.   Published online December 31, 2010
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Purpose: The previous studies on $H_1$ antihistamine overdose have generally been limited to cases of acute doxylamine succinate (DS) poisoning, yet there have been some studies on diphenhydramine (DPH) overdosing. But many clinicians consider the two drugs to be very similar and to have similar ingredients. The purpose of this study was to clarify the toxicologic characteristics and clinical outcomes between DS and DPH poisoning/overdose. Methods: We reviewed the medical and intensive care records of the patients with acute DS or DPH poisoning and who admitted to our emergency department from January 2008 and April 2010. We collected patient information regarding the features of the poisoning and the clinical and demographic characteristics. The patients were assessed for the clinical outcomes, the GCS, the PSS (Poisoning Severity Score) and the SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment). Results: Fifty seven patients (45 cases of DS poisoning and 12 cases of DPH poisoning) were enrolled. Compared with the DS group, the DPH group had higher incidences of intubation, serious mental change, QTc prolongation and ECG conduction abnormality (p=0.041, <0.001, 0.014 and 0.044, respectively). The DPH group had a higher PSS and a longer ICU stay. The peak CPK time and the CPK normalization time were longer for the patients with rhabdomyolysis due to DS poisoning. Conclusion: Two common $H_1$ antihistamines, doxylamine and diphenhydramine, are in the same ethanolamine-structural class, but the toxico-clinical outcomes are different according to many aspects. Therefore, clinicians could take a careful approach for the differential diagnosis and management between DS and DPH poisoning.
The Clinical Features and Risk Factors of Seizure After Doxylamine Intoxication
Beom-Soo Song, Ki-Man Lee, Sun-Wook Kim, Je-Sung You, Tae-Nyung Chung, Yoo-Seok Park, Sung-Phil Jung, Hong-Du Goo, In-Cheol Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2010;8(2):88-96.   Published online December 31, 2010
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Purpose: Doxylamine is antihistamine drug that is used as a hypnotic. It is also used for suicidal attempts because it can be easily purchased at the pharmacy without a prescription. There were many articles about the complications after doxylamine intoxication such as a rhabdomyolysis, but only a few articles have reported on seizure. We reviewed the cases of doxylamine intoxication with seizure that were treated in the emergency department. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of the patients who were over 15 years old and who were intoxicated by doxylamine at 3 emergency medical centers from January 2006 to June 2010. We reviewed the patients' age, gender, the dose of doxylamine ingested, if gastrointestinal decontamination was done, the time from intoxication to hospital arrival, the seizure history, treatment of seizure, the electroencephalography (EEG) results, the brain computed tomography (CT) results and the blood test results. Results: There were 168 patients who were intoxicated by doxylamine during the study period. Twelve patients had a seizure episode. The differences between the patients who developed seizure and the patients who did not were the dose and the serum levels of sodium and creatinine. The only clinically meaningful difference was the amount of doxylamine. The amount of doxylamine ingested (>29 mg/kg) predicted the development of seizure with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 92% on the ROC curve. One patient among the seizure patients expired in the emergency department. Conclusion: In case of doxylamine intoxicated patients, there is close relationship between seizure and ingested amount, so close observation needs to be done for the patients who ingest too much because doxylamine can cause death. Further prospective studies are needed for doxylamine intoxicated patients with a seizure episode.
Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure Following an Intentional Overdose of Stacker 3 (A Caffeine-Containing Weight-Reduction Supplement)
Mi-Jin Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2010;8(1):46-49.   Published online June 30, 2010
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"Stacker 3" is one of the most popular caffeine-containing weight-reduction supplements and it has ephedra-free properties as "Stacker 2 Ephedra-Free" in many countries, including Korea. We describe here a 26-year-old woman who took an acute intentional overdose of "Stacker 3"(approximately 50 capsules, total amount: 25 grams, as caffeine 250 mg/kg) and who had delirium, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. She had to be treated by forced diuresis and urine alkalinization, and she subsequently recovered. This is the first such case report in the medical literature.
Relation of First Aid associated with Complications after Snake Bites
Jae-Cheon Jeon, Dong-Ha Lee, Geun-Yong Kwon, Sung-Jin Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):105-112.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: There have been local wound complications in patients who have received first aid after venomous snake bites. Yet first aid in relation to local wound complications has not been well studied. Methods: We conducted a 5-year retrospective study of 111 snake bite patients who visited the emergency departments of several medical centers between January 2004 and December 2008. We categorized the patients into those who had complications with inadequate first aid, those who had complications without first aid those who had complications with adequate first aid. We compared the genera characteristics and the laboratory and clinical findings of the three groups. Results: The ale o female ratio was 1.36. The most common bite site was fingers. The most common systemic symptom was dizziness (6.3%) and the most common complication was rhabdomyolysis (23.4%). The inadequate first aids group had more local complications (cellulitis, skin necrosis) than did the group with adequate first aid or the group with no first aids. Conclusion: Inadequate first aid after snake bite leads to local complications, so we must be careful to administer first aid after snake bite and evaluate this first aid in elation to local complications.
The Predictive Factors of the Serum Creatine Kinase Level Normalization Time in Patients with Rhabdomyolysis due to Doxylamine Ingestion
Min-Chul Shin, Oh-Young Kwon, Jong-Suk Lee, Han-Sung Choi, Hoon-Pyo Hong, Young-Gwan Ko
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):156-163.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: Doxylamine succinate (DS) is frequently used to treat insomnia and it may induce rhabdomyolysis in the overdose cases. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the factors that can predict the serum creatine kinase (CK) level normalization time for patients with rhabdomyolysis due to DS ingestion. Methods: This study was conducted on 71 patients who were admitted with rhabdomyolysis after DS ingestion during the period from January 2000 to July 2009. Rhabdomyolysis was defined as a serum CK level over 1,000 U/L. The collected data included the general characteristics, the anticholinergic symptoms, the ingested dose, the peak serum CK level, the time interval (TI) from the event to the peak CK level and the TI from the event to a CK level below 1,000 U/L. We evaluated the correlation between the patients' variables and the TI from the event to the peak CK level time and the time for a CK level below 1,000 U/L. Results: The mean ingested dose per body weight (BW) was $30.86{pm}18.63;mg/kg$ and the mean TI from the event to treatment was $4.04{pm}3.67$ hours. The TI from the event to the peak CK level was longer for the patients with a larger ingestion dose per BW (r=0.587, p<0.05). The CK normalization time was longer for the patients with a larger ingested dose per BW (r=0.446, p<0.05) and a higher peak CK level (r=0.634, p<0.05). Conclusion: The ingested dose per BW was correlated with the TI from the event to the peak CK level, and the ingested dose per BW and the peak CK level have significant correlations with the CK normalization time. These factors may be used to determine the discharge period of patients who had rhabdomyolysis following a OS overdose.
Related Factors and their Effects on Acute Renal Failure Resulting from Rhabdomyolysis after Pesticide Intoxication
Chang-Woo Kang, Kyung-Woo Lee, Jin-Hee Jung, Tae-Shin Kang, Dong-Hoon Kim, Sung-Choon Kim, In-Sung Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):83-89.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: Rhabdomyolysis is one of the most important complications of pesticide intoxication. It affects a patient's clinical prognosis and can cause acute renal failure. It is important that patients diagnosed with pesticide intoxication receive an accurate initial diagnosis and proper treatment to prevent significant complications. This study's objective was to investigate and confirm related factors causing acute renal failure by verifying clinical observations and laboratory findings collected following pesticide intoxication. Methods: A retrospective analysis was made of 734 patients who presenting to our emergency medical center after ingesting pesticides between January 2006 and December 2008, Of these, 513 patients were selected for the study. Two hundred and twenty-one patients were excluded because of paraquat intoxication, age (if under 18), or chronic renal failure. Seventy-four patients were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis, based on serum creatinine phosphokinase levels were > 1,000U/L. Acute renal failure was diagnosed when creatinine levels were > 2.0 mg/dL. Results: Among the 74 patients diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis, 26 (35.1%) experienced acute renal failure. The most meaningful related factor in the prediction of acute renal failure was initial arterial pH and creatinine level. Conclusion: Initial arterial pH and creatinine level are predictors of complications such as acute renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology