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Utility of the APACHE II score as a neurological prognostic factor for glufosinate-intoxicated patients with alert mental status
Rok Lee, Tae Yong Shin, Hyung Jun Moon, Hyun Jung Lee, Dongkil Jeong, Dongwook Lee, Sun In Hong, Hyun Joon Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):135-142.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00018
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: In patients with glufosinate poisoning, severe neurological symptoms may be closely related to a poor prognosis, but their appearance may be delayed. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score could predict the neurological prognosis in patients with glufosinate poisoning who present to the emergency room with alert mental status.
Methods
This study was conducted retrospectively through a chart review for patients over 18 years who presented to a single emergency medical center from January 2018 to December 2022 due to glufosinate poisoning. Patients were divided into groups with a good neurological prognosis (Cerebral Performance Category [CPC] Scale 1 or 2) and a poor prognosis (CPC Scale 3, 4, or 5) to identify whether any variables showed significant differences between the two groups.
Results
There were 66 patients (67.3%) with good neurological prognoses and 32 (32.8%) with poor prognoses. In the multivariate logistic analysis, the APACHE II score, serum amylase, and co-ingestion of alcohol showed significant results, with odds ratios of 1.387 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.027–1.844), 1.017 (95% CI, 1.002–1.032), and 0.196 (95% CI, 0.040–0.948), respectively. With an APACHE II score cutoff of 6.5, the AUC was 0.826 (95% CI, 0.746–0.912). The cutoff of serum amylase was 75.5 U/L, with an AUC was 0.761 (95% CI, 0.652–0.844), and the AUC of no co-ingestion with alcohol was 0.629 (95% CI, 0.527–0.722).
Conclusion
The APACHE II score could be a useful indicator for predicting the neurological prognosis of patients with glufosinate poisoning who have alert mental status.
Comparison of hyperbaric oxygen therapy pressures for acute carbon monoxide poisoning
Jeong Yun Kim, Jihye Lim, Sung Hwa Kim, Sang Il Han, Yong Sung Cha
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):117-127.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00012
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Purpose: No consensus currently exists regarding the maximal pressure of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy performed within 24 hours of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. This study aimed to evaluate the difference in therapeutic effects according to the first HBO2 pressure (3.0 atmospheres absolute [ATA] vs. 2.8 ATA).
Methods
We used prospectively collected registry data on CO poisoning at a tertiary academic hospital in the Republic of Korea. Adult patients with acute CO poisoning treated with HBO2 within 24 hours after arrival at the emergency department and without the use of additional HBO2 after 24 hours between January 2007 and February 2022 were included. Data from 595 patients were analyzed using propensity score matching (PSM). Patients with mild (non-intubated) and severe (intubated) poisoning were also compared. Neurocognitive outcomes at 1 month after CO poisoning were evaluated using the Global Deterioration Scale combined with neurological impairment.
Results
After PSM, the neurocognitive outcomes at 1-month post-CO exposure were not significantly different between the 2.8 ATA (110 patients) and 3.0 ATA (55 patients) groups (p=1.000). Similarly, there was also no significant difference in outcomes in a subgroup analysis according to poisoning severity in matched patients (165 patients) (mild [non-intubated]: p=0.053; severe [intubated]: p=1.000).
Conclusion
Neurocognitive sequelae at 1 month were not significantly different between HBO2 therapy pressures of 2.8 ATA and 3.0 ATA in patients with acute CO poisoning. In addition, the 1-month neurocognitive sequelae did not differ significantly between intubated and non-intubated patients.
Characteristics of poisoning patients visiting emergency departments before and after the COVID-19 pandemic
Jae Kee Seung, Cho Yongil, Kang Hyunggoo, Ho Lim Tae, Oh Jaehoon, Sung Ko Byuk, Lee Juncheol
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(2):66-74.   Published online December 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.2.66
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study investigates the characteristics and prognosis of acute poisoning patients visiting nationwide emergency departments before and after the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data were obtained from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). Methods: This nationwide retrospective observational study included acute poisoning patients who visited the emergency departments between February 1 to December 31, 2020, which has been determined as the pandemic period. The same periods in 2018 and 2019 were designated as the control periods. The primary outcome assessed was the length of stay in emergency departments (EDLOS). The secondary outcomes examined were intensive care unit admission rate and in-hospital mortality rate before and after the pandemic. A subgroup analysis was performed for inpatients and intentional poisoning patients. Results: A total of 163,560 patients were included in the study. During the pandemic, the proportion of women increased from 50.0% in 2018 and 50.3% in 2019 to 52.5% in 2020. Patients aged 20-29 years increased from 13.4% in 2018 and 13.9% in 2019 to 16.6% in 2020. A rise in cases of intentional poisoning was also noted - from 33.9% in 2018 and 34.0% in 2019 to 38.4% in 2020. Evaluating the hospitalized poisoned patients revealed that the EDLOS increased from 3.8 hours in 2018 and 3.7 hours in 2019 to 4.2 hours in 2020. ICU admissions were also markedly increased (2018, 48.2%; 2019, 51.8%; 2020, 53.2%) among hospitalized patients. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of acute poisoning patients visiting nationwide emergency departments in Korea. The proportion of young adults, women, and intentional poisoning patients has increased after the COVID-19 pandemic. Prolonged length of stay at the emergency department and an increased rate of intensive care unit admissions were determined in hospitalized acute poisoning patients.

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  • Demographic characteristics of patients admitted to the emergency department for intoxication and a time series analysis during the COVID-19 period
    Bongmin Son, Nayoon Kang, Eunah Han, Gina Yu, Junho Cho, Jaiwoog Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Sung Phil Chung, Minhong Choa
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(2): 92.     CrossRef
  • Changes in the characteristics of acute carbon monoxide poisoning patients who visited the emergency department during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Jun bo Sim, Tae kyu Ahn, Hyun Kim
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(2): 108.     CrossRef
Rhabdomyolysis induced by venomous snake bite
Lee Jungho, Moon Jeongmi, Chun Byeongjo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(2):51-57.   Published online December 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.2.51
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Despite previous studies reporting the development of rhabdomyolysis (RM), this affliction tends to be neglected as an envenomation sign in South Korea. The current retrospective study investigates the prevalence and prognosis of RM after a snakebite. We further searched for predictors of snakebite-induced RM, which can be observed at presentation. Methods: This study included 231 patients who presented to the ED within 24 hours after a snakebite. The patients were classified according to the severity of RM, and the data, comprising baseline characteristics and clinical course including the level of creatine kinase (CK), were collected and compared according to the severity of RM. Results: The prevalence of RM and severe RM were determined to be 39% and 18.5%, respectively. Compared to the group without RM or with mild RM, the group with severe RM had a higher grade of local swelling, a higher frequency of acute kidney injury and neurotoxicity, and a greater need for renal replacement therapy and vasopressor administration. However, the incidence of acute renal injury in the RM group was 7.7%, with two patients needing renal replacement therapy. No mortalities were reported at discharge. Results of the multinomial logistic regression model revealed that the WBC levels are significantly associated with the risk of severe RM. Conclusion: RM should be considered the primary clinical sign of snake envenomation in South Korea, although it does not seem to worsen the clinical course. In particular, physicians should pay attention to patients who present with leukocytosis after a snakebite, which indicates the risk of developing RM, regardless of the CK level at presentation.
Assessment of early nutritional state in critical patients with intoxication and the effect of nutritional status on prognosis
Dong-wan Ko, Sangcheon Choi, Young-gi Min, Hyuk jin Lee, Eun Jung Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):93-99.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.93
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Purpose: Nutritional status and support in critically ill patients are important factors in determining patient recovery and prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the early nutritional status and the methods of nutritional support in critically ill patients with acute poisoning and to evaluate the effect of nutritional status on prognosis. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in tertiary care teaching hospital from January 2018 to December 2020. in an emergency department of university hospital, 220 patients who were stayed more than 2 days of poisoning in intensive care unit were enrolled. Results: 155 (70.5%) of patients with acute poisoning had low-risk in nutritional risk screening (NRS). Patients with malignancy had higher NRS (low risk 5.2%, moderate risk 18.5%, high risk 13.2%, p=0.024). Patients of 91.4% supplied nutrition via oral route or enteral route. Parenteral route for starting method of nutritional support were higher in patients with acute poisoning of herbicide or pesticide (medicine 3.2%, herbicide 13.8%, pesticide 22.2%, p=0.000). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, herbicide or pesticide intoxication, higher risk in NRS and sequential organ failure assessment over 4.5 were affecting factor on poor recovery at discharge. Conclusion: NRS in patients intoxicated with herbicide or pesticide were higher than that in patients intoxicated with medicine intoxication. Enteral nutrition in patients intoxicated with herbicide or pesticide was less common. Initial NRS was correlated with recovery at discharge in patient with intoxication. It is expected to be helpful in finding patients with high-risk nutritional status in acute poisoning patients and establishing a treatment plan that can actively implement nutritional support.
The Prognosis of Glyphosate herbicide intoxicated patients according to their salt types
Min Gyu Jeong, Kyoung Tak Keum, Seongjun Ahn, Yong Hwan Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Kwang Won Cho, Seong Youn Hwang, Dong Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):83-92.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.83
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Glyphosate herbicide (GH) is a widely used herbicide and has been associated with significant mortality as poisoned cases increases. One of the reasons for high toxicity is thought to be toxic effect of its ingredient with glyphosate. This study was designed to determine differences in the clinical course with the salt-type contained in GH. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at a single hospital between January 2013 and December 2017. We enrolled GH-poisoned patients visited the emergency department. According to salt-type, patients were divided into 4 groups: isopropylamine (IPA), ammonium (Am), potassium (Po), and mixed salts (Mi) groups. The demographics, laboratory variables, complications, and their mortality were analyzed to determine clinical differences associated with each salt-type. Addtionally, we subdivided patients into survivor and non-survivor groups for investigating predictive factors for the mortality. Results: Total of 348 GH-poisoned patients were divided as follows: IPA 248, Am 41, Po 10, and Mi 49 patients. There was no difference in demographic or underlying disease history, but systolic blood pressure (SBP) was low in Po group. The ratio of intentional ingestion was higher in Po and Mi groups. Metabolic acidosis and relatively high lactate level were presented in Po group. As the primary outcome, the mortality rates were as follows: IPA, 26 (10.5%); Am, 2 (4.9%); Po, 1 (10%); and Mi, 1 (2%). There was no statistically significant difference in the mortality and the incidence of complications. Additionally, age, low SBP, low pH, corrected QT (QTc) prolongation, and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation were analyzed as independent predictors for mortality in a regression analysis. Conclusion: There was no statistical difference in their complications and the mortality across the GH-salt groups in this study.

Citations

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  • Association between continuous renal replacement therapy and mortality after acute herbicide (glyphosate and/or glufosinate) intoxication: propensity score matching approach
    Seung Woo Lee, Won-joon Jeong, Seung Ryu, Yongchul Cho, Yeonho You, Jung Soo Park, Changshin Kang, Hong Joon Ahn, So Young Jeon, Jinwoong Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 17.     CrossRef
Effect of ETCO2 monitoring of poisoning patients with decreased mental state in ED
Yong Hee Kwon, Byung Hak So, Won Jung Jeong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(1):44-50.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.1.44
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Purpose: This study aimed to analyse the effect of End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide (ETCO2) monitoring on patients who had been poisoned and presented in the emergency department with decreased consciousness. Methods: The data of patients over 18 years old presenting with poisoning from 2016 to 2020 was collected from the emergency department. We retrospectively analyzed their medical records, and defined patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 9 or less as having decreased consciousness. We divided the patients into two groups, one with ETCO2 monitoring and the other without, and the difference between the two groups was compared. Results: 168 patients participated in this study and 83 (49.4%) of them belonged to the ETCO2 monitoring group. In this group, the interval between arterial blood tests was statistically significantly longer and the rate of intubation was lower. In addition, in the monitoring group, the incidence of pneumonia and the rate of poor prognosis was not significantly higher. Conclusion: Although ETCO2 monitoring does not directly affect the prognosis of poisoned patients with decreased consciousness, it should be actively done as it can help to adequately treat patients while avoiding invasive techniques or unnecessary intubation.
Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Severe Poisoning Patients and Analysis of Prognostic Factors
Young Yun Jung, Chul Min Ha, Sung Tae Jung, Hyoung Ju Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):94-101.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.94
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Purpose: This study examined the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of intensive care unit (ICU) patients admitted or died in the emergency medical center with acute-poisoning to investigate the variables related to the prognosis. Methods: The data were collected from poisoning patients admitted or died in the emergency medical center of a general hospital located in Seoul, from January 2014 to February 2020. The subjects of this study were 190 patients. The medical records were screened retrospectively, and the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients in the emergency room (ER) and ICU were examined to investigate the contributing factors that influence the poor prognosis. Results: The study analyzed 182 patients who survived after being admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The results are as follows. The mental change (87.4%) was the most common symptom. Sedative poisoning (49.5%) was the commonest cause. For most patients, pneumonia (26.9%) was the most common complication. Hypotension (23.7%), tachycardia (42.1%), fever (15.8%), seizures (10.5%), dyspnea (2.6%), high poisoning severity score (PSS), type of toxic material, mechanical ventilator application (39.5%), inotropes application (39.5%), and pneumonia (55.3%) were correlated the LOS over 5 days in the ICU. 8 patients died. In the case of death pesticides and carbon monoxide were the main toxic materials; tachycardia, bradycardia, and hypotension were the main symptoms, and a mechanical ventilator and inotropes were applied. Conclusion: Patients with unstable vital signs, high PSS, and non-pharmaceutical poisoning had a prolonged LOS in the ICU and a poor prognosis.
Analysis of Poisoning Patients Using 2017-18 ED Based Injury in-depth Surveillance Data
Jiyoon Koh, Woochan Jeon, Hyunggoo Kang, Yang Weon Kim, Hyun Kim, Bum Jin Oh, Mi Jin Lee, Byeong Jo Chun, Sung Phil Chung, Kyung Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):85-93.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.85
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Purpose: The annual statistics for poisoning are reported based on the data from poison control centers in many advanced countries. In 2016 a study was conducted to analyze the 2016 Korea Poisoning status. This study was conducted to make a better annual report for poisoning statistics in Korea from a 2017-2018 national representative database. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of poisoning patients based on the data from an emergency department (ED) based injury in-depth surveillance project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017-2018. Bite or sting injuries were not included. Results: A total of 17714 patients presented to 23 EDs because of poisoning. Adults above 20 years old age accounted for 84.6% of the population, while the proportion of intentional poisoning was 60.8%. The poisoning substance presented in the ED were therapeutic drugs (51.2%), gas (20.3%), pesticides (16.4%), and artificial substances (11.4%). Overall, 35% of patients were admitted for further treatment. The mortality was 2.4% (422 cases), and the most common fatal substances in order were carbon monoxide, other herbicides, and paraquat. Conclusion: This study showed the 2017-2018 status of poisoning in Korea. The prognosis is different from the cause of poisoning and the initial mental state of the patient. Therefore, appropriate methods for preventing poisoning and therapeutic plans in specific situations are needed.

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  • 응급실 기반 중독 심층 실태조사 1차년도 결과 보고
    성우 이, 수진 김, 규종 조, 미진 이, 병학 소, 경수 김, 주현 송
    Public Health Weekly Report.2024; 17(14): 535.     CrossRef
  • Status and trends of medical expenditures for poisoning patients
    Eung Nam Kim, Soyoung Jeon, Hye Sun Lee, Sung Phil Chung
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 24.     CrossRef
  • The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
    Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Prioritising Risk Factors for Prescription Drug Overdose among Older Adults in South Korea: A Multi-Method Study
    Eun-Hae Lee, Ju-Ok Park, Joon-Pil Cho, Choung-Ah Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(11): 5948.     CrossRef
Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Glyphosate Poisoning
Hyung Hun Park, Kyu Ill Choi, Je Won Lee, Jung Min Park, Jinwook Park, Sang Moon Noh, Jaekyung Cho, Daero Lee, Jae Chul Cho, Dong Chan Park, Yang Hun Kim, Joo Hwan Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):110-115.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.110
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with glyphosate poisoning has a poor prognosis. This study aimed to predict the risk factors for AKI in patients with glyphosate poisoning at the emergency department (ED). Methods: Clinical data on glyphosate poisoning patients at ED who were older than 18 years were collected retrospectively between January 2013 and December 2019. The clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes of the AKI group in patients with glyphosate poisoning were compared with the non-AKI (NAKI) group. Results: Of 63 glyphosate poisoning patients, AKI was observed in 15 (23.8%). The AKI patients group showed the following: old age (p=0.038), low systolic blood pressure (p=0.021), large amount of ingestion (p=0.026), delayed hospital visits (p=0.009), high white blood cells (WBC) (p<0.001), high neutrophil counts (p<0.001), high neutrophil-lymphocyte (LN) ratios (p<0.001), high serum potassium (p=0.005), low arterial blood pH (p=0.015), and low pO2 (p=0.021), low bicarbonate (p=0.009), and high Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) (p<0.001). AKI patients required hemodialysis, ventilator care (p<0.001, p=0.002), and inotropics (p<0.001). They also showed more intensive care unit admission (p<0.001), longer hospitalization (p<0.001), and high mortality (p<0.001). Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that high WBCs (OR, 1.223) and increased LN ratios (OR, 1.414) were independently associated with the occurrence of AKI. Conclusion: In patients with glyphosate poisoning at ED, high WBCs and increased LN ratios can help predict the occurrence of AKI.
Respiratory Failure following Tetramine poisoning after Ingestion of Sea Snail: A Case Report
Joo Hwan Lee, Jin Wook Park, Seong Jun Hong, Jae-Cheon Jeon, Sang-Chan Jin
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(1):42-46.   Published online June 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.1.42
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Tetramine toxicity due to sea snail ingestion is generally mild and has a good prognosis. Tetramine toxicity acts on the acetylcholine receptor, affecting the neuromuscular junction and autonomic nervous system. A 78-year-old female patient visited the emergency room with vomiting and dyspnea after eating sea snails. At the time of admission, the vital signs recorded were 140/80 mmHg-105/min-24/min-36.5℃, and 90% oxygen saturation. Arterial blood test revealed hypercapnia (pCO2 58.2 mmHg) and respiratory acidosis (pH 7.213, HCO3- 22.5 mmol/L), whereas other blood tests showed no specific findings. Due to decreased consciousness and hypoxia, endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation were administered to the patient. Successful weaning was accomplished after 12 hrs, and the patient was discharged without any further complications. Although tetramine toxicity rarely results in acute respiratory failure due to paralysis of the respiratory muscle, caution is required whilst treating the patient.
The Effects of Agent Orange in Patient with Pneumonia
Dong Sung Kim, Jungyoup Lee, Yu Chan Kye, Euigi Jung, Ki Young Jeong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(1):26-33.   Published online June 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.1.26
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Purpose: Agent Orange (AO) is a herbicide and defoliant used by the United States and its military allies during the Vietnam War. Pneumonia is a common cause of death among Vietnam veterans in our hospital. There have been no previous studies researching any association between AO exposure and the prognosis for pneumonia. The primary objective of this study was to investigate associations between AO exposure and 30-day mortality due to pneumonia. The secondary objective was to examine the clinical factors associated with therapeutic outcomes in veterans with pneumonia, and to assess the prevalence of combined diseases in AO-exposed veterans. Methods: This study retrospectively included veteran patients diagnosed with pneumonia in the emergency department and hospitalized between February 2014 and March 2018. The enrolled patients were grouped according to their defoliant exposure history, and the clinical information of defoliant-exposed and non-defoliant-exposed groups were compared. Patients were divided according to 30-day mortality, and significant factors influencing mortality were evaluated by using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. The final multivariate model revealed the effect of AO exposure on therapeutic outcomes of pneumonia. Results: A total of 1006 patients were analyzed. Of these, 276 patients had a history of AO exposure, whereas 730 patients had not been exposed. Factors positively associated with 30-day mortality were malignancy, respiratory rate, blood urea nitrogen, and albumin which was negatively associated with mortality. Conclusion: Exposure to defoliant is not associated with 30-day mortality in patients with pneumonia. However, veterans with defoliant exposure are associated with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cerebrovascular accident, malignancy, and chronic kidney disease.
Characteristics of Acute Herbicide Poisoning: Focused on Chlorophenoxy Herbicide
Hakyoon Song, Sangchun Choi, Yoon Seok Jung, Eunjung Park, Hyukhoon Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(2):126-131.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.2.126
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Herbicide-related mortality has decreased since the complete ban of paraquat product sales in 2012, but there still have been other herbicides intoxications with relatively severe complications. Glyphosate and glufosinate herbicides are used widely, and considerable research has been conducted. Chlorophenoxy herbicide is another major herbicide that has shown poor outcomes and mortality without proper management, but research in this area is lacking. Therefore, this study compared the clinical features of chlorophenoxy herbicide with those of other herbicides. Methods: The medical records of patients exposed to herbicides at a tertiary academic university hospital in Korea from May 2014 to April 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. The demographic and clinical data of 135 patients were then analyzed to identify the recent herbicides intoxication trends after the paraquat sales ban, focusing mainly on chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning. Results: Of the 135 patients, 13 patients (9.6%) had chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning. No significant differences in all the variables were observed between the chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning group and non-chlorophenoxy herbicides poisoning groups. Toxic symptoms after poisoning varied from nothing noticeable to confusion; none of the patients had severe complications after their treatments. Conclusion: Acute chlorophenoxy poisoning is relatively less severe, with lower mortality rates than glyphosate and glufosinate poisoning.

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  • Association between continuous renal replacement therapy and mortality after acute herbicide (glyphosate and/or glufosinate) intoxication: propensity score matching approach
    Seung Woo Lee, Won-joon Jeong, Seung Ryu, Yongchul Cho, Yeonho You, Jung Soo Park, Changshin Kang, Hong Joon Ahn, So Young Jeon, Jinwoong Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 17.     CrossRef
Risk Factors of Delirium in ICU Patients with Acute Poisoning
Hee Yeon Kim, Kyung Man Cha, Byung Hak So
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(1):14-20.   Published online June 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.1.14
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Purpose: This study estimated the incidence of delirium and associated risk factors and outcomes in ICU patients with acute poisoning. Methods: Data were collected from ICU patients over 18 years of age that were admitted via the emergency center after presenting with poisoning from 2010 to 2015. Delirium was assessed retrospectively using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC). Risk factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 199 patients participated in this study and 68 (34.2%) were diagnosed with delirium based on the ICDSC score. The delirium group showed a significantly higher association with prolonged length of stay in the hospital and ICU in comparison with the non-delirium group. The delirium group was associated with greater use of physical restraint. A statistically greater number of patients with pharmaceutical substance poisoning developed delirium over a short period of time than those with non-pharmaceutical substance poisoning. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to age, sex, past history, GCS score, vital signs, application of ventilator care and renal replacement therapy. Conclusion: The finding that the delirium group had a greater length of stay in both the hospital and the ICU is consistent with the results of previous worldwide studies of the effects of delirium on the prognosis of patients who were admitted to the ICU, suggesting the possibility for domestic application. Additionally, use of physical restraint was positively related to the incidence of delirium. Thus, interventions for minimizing the use of physical restraints and considering alternatives are needed.
Classify the Acute Drug Intoxication Patients with Poisoning Severity Score(PSS) and Calculate the Optimal Cutoff Value of PSS, PSSsum to Predict Poor Prognosis
Hyun Woo Park, Ha Young Park, Han Byeol Kim, Keon Woo Park, Sang Hun Lee, Hyun Wook Lee, Je Won Lee, Tae Sik Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):75-85.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.75
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Purpose: This study examined the Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) from acute poisoning patients, to determine the relationships among the PSS, PSSsum, the primary outcome (prolonged stay at the ER over 24 hours, general ward and ICU admission and the application of intubation and mechanical ventilator, and the administration of inotropes). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted through the EMR for 15 months. The PSS grade was classified according to the evidence of symptoms and signs. The differences in the primary outcomes between the PSS of when a single organ was damaged, and the PSS, PSSsum combined with the grade of when multiple organs were damaged, were studied. The cutoff value was calculated using the receiving operating characteristics (ROC) curve. Results: Of the 284 patients; 85 (29.9%) were men with a mean age of 48.8 years, and their average arrival time to the ER was $4.4{pm}6.7;hours$. The most frequently used drug was hypnotics. The number of patients with PSS grade 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 17, 129, 122, 24, and one, respectively. No ICU admissions, application of intubation and mechanical ventilators, administration of inotropes were observed among the patients with PSS grades 0 and 1 but only on patients with PSS grades 2 to 4. At PSS, when separating the patients according to the number of damaged organs, 17 had no symptoms, 133 had one organ damaged, 75 had two organs damaged, 36 had three organs damaged, and 23 had four organs damaged. Significant differences were observed between increasing number of damaged organs and the primary outcome. Conclusion: Among the acute poisoning patients, the PSS was higher in severity when the grade was higher. The number of damaged organs and the primary outcome showed meaningful statistical differences. This study confirmed that when the patients' PSS>2 and PSSsum>5, the frequency of ICU admission was higher, and they were considered to be severe with an increased prescription risk of application of intubation and mechanical ventilator, and the administration of inotropes.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology