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Comparison of hyperbaric oxygen therapy pressures for acute carbon monoxide poisoning
Jeong Yun Kim, Jihye Lim, Sung Hwa Kim, Sang Il Han, Yong Sung Cha
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):117-127.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00012
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: No consensus currently exists regarding the maximal pressure of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy performed within 24 hours of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. This study aimed to evaluate the difference in therapeutic effects according to the first HBO2 pressure (3.0 atmospheres absolute [ATA] vs. 2.8 ATA).
Methods
We used prospectively collected registry data on CO poisoning at a tertiary academic hospital in the Republic of Korea. Adult patients with acute CO poisoning treated with HBO2 within 24 hours after arrival at the emergency department and without the use of additional HBO2 after 24 hours between January 2007 and February 2022 were included. Data from 595 patients were analyzed using propensity score matching (PSM). Patients with mild (non-intubated) and severe (intubated) poisoning were also compared. Neurocognitive outcomes at 1 month after CO poisoning were evaluated using the Global Deterioration Scale combined with neurological impairment.
Results
After PSM, the neurocognitive outcomes at 1-month post-CO exposure were not significantly different between the 2.8 ATA (110 patients) and 3.0 ATA (55 patients) groups (p=1.000). Similarly, there was also no significant difference in outcomes in a subgroup analysis according to poisoning severity in matched patients (165 patients) (mild [non-intubated]: p=0.053; severe [intubated]: p=1.000).
Conclusion
Neurocognitive sequelae at 1 month were not significantly different between HBO2 therapy pressures of 2.8 ATA and 3.0 ATA in patients with acute CO poisoning. In addition, the 1-month neurocognitive sequelae did not differ significantly between intubated and non-intubated patients.
Demographic characteristics of patients admitted to the emergency department for intoxication and a time series analysis during the COVID-19 period
Bongmin Son, Nayoon Kang, Eunah Han, Gina Yu, Junho Cho, Jaiwoog Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Sung Phil Chung, Minhong Choa
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):92-107.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00011
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study investigated the characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients who visited the emergency department due to intoxication and analyzed the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on their visits.
Methods
A retrospective study was conducted using data from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) on patients who visited the emergency department due to intoxication between January 2014 and December 2020. In total, 277,791 patients were included in the study, and their demographic and clinical data were analyzed. A model was created from 2014 to 2019 and applied to 2020 (i.e., during the COVID-19 pandemic) to conduct a time series analysis distinguishing between unexpected accidents and suicide/self-harm among patients who visited the emergency department.
Results
The most common reason for visiting the emergency department was unintentional accidents (48.5%), followed by self-harm/suicide attempts (43.8%). Unexpected accident patients and self-harm/suicide patients showed statistically significant differences in terms of sex, age group, hospitalization rate, and mortality rate. The time series analysis showed a decrease in patients with unexpected accidents during the COVID-19 pandemic, but no change in patients with suicide/self-harm.
Conclusion
Depending on the intentionality of the intoxication, significant differences were found in the age group, the substance of intoxication, and the mortality rate. Therefore, future analyses of patients with intoxication should be stratified according to intentionality. In addition, the time series analysis of intentional self-harm/suicide did not show a decrease in 2010 in the number of patients, whereas a decrease was found for unintentional accidents.
The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):1-16.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00007
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose: This study investigated the actual incidence of acute poisoning in Korea on a nationwide scale, with the aim of laying the groundwork for future initiatives in prevention, strategic antidote distribution, and the development of effective emergency treatment for acute poisoning.
Methods
The study analyzed data from 3,038 patients who presented to emergency departments with poisoning-related conditions from June 1, 2022 to December 31, 2022 at 10 sites in nine cities across the country. We extracted data on general characteristics of the poisoning cases, including demographic characteristics (age and gender), place of exposure, reason for poisoning, route of exposure, and the substance involved in the poisoning incident. Age-related patterns in reasons for poisoning, medical outcomes, frequent and primary poisoning substances, and deaths were also analyzed.
Results
The population analyzed in our study was predominantly female, with women constituting 54.74% of all cases. Among infants and children, non-intentional poisoning due to general accidents was the most common cause, accounting for 71.43% of cases. Conversely, suicidal poisoning was more prevalent among teenagers and adults over 20. Fifty-two patients died during the study period, with males comprising approximately two-thirds (67.31%) of these fatalities. Pesticides were the most common poisoning substance among those who died, accounting for 55.77% of such cases. Notably, a significant majority of the victims were elderly individuals aged 60 and above.
Conclusion
This study holds substantial significance, since it represents the first comprehensive investigation and analysis of the symptoms, treatment, and causes of death due to poisoning in Korea on a national scale. By substantially expanding the range and types of poisonous substances examined, we were able to more precisely identify the characteristics and clinical patterns of poisoning cases nationwide.
Changes in deoxyhemoglobin and admission duration in carbon monoxide poisoning patients: a retrospective study
Jae Gu Ji, Yang Weon Kim, Chul Ho Park, Yoo Sang Yoon, Yundeok Jang, JI-Hun Kang, Chang Min Park, Sang Hyeon Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):32-38.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deoxyhemoglobin changes were associated with admission duration in carbon monoxide (CO)-poisoned patients.
Methods
This retrospective study included 181 patients who were able to breathe by themselves after CO poisoning. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed to measure their deoxyhemoglobin levels. Their baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes during hospitalization in the emergency department (ED) were collected and compared. To assess changes in deoxyhemoglobin levels, blood samples were taken immediately after patients presented to the ED and then again after 6 hours. For statistical analysis, logistic regression was utilized to determine the effect of deoxyhemoglobin changes on admission duration.
Results
The incidence rates of hypocapnia and hypoxemia at presentation after acute CO poisoning were 28.7% and 43.6%, respectively. Moreover, the magnitude of increasing deoxyhemoglobin levels in patients with hypoxemia (2.1 [1.7–3.1], p<0.001) and changes in deoxyhemoglobin levels appeared to have an impact on the length of hospitalization in the ED (odds ratio, 1.722; 95% confidence interval, 0.547–0.952; p<0.001).
Conclusion
In patients with acute CO poisoning, deoxyhemoglobin levels appeared to increase in those with hypoxemia, which in turn was associated with prolonged hospitalization.
Association between continuous renal replacement therapy and mortality after acute herbicide (glyphosate and/or glufosinate) intoxication: propensity score matching approach
Seung Woo Lee, Won-joon Jeong, Seung Ryu, Yongchul Cho, Yeonho You, Jung Soo Park, Changshin Kang, Hong Joon Ahn, So Young Jeon, Jinwoong Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):17-23.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: We investigated the association between continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and mortality after acute glyphosate or glufosinate intoxication.
Methods
The electronic medical records of patients with acute herbicide ingestion who were admitted to the regional emergency center of a metropolitan city in Korea from 3/1/2013 to 2/28/2022 were analyzed and reviewed retrospectively. The case group received CRRT, while the control group did not. In total, 96 patients experienced acute herbicide intoxication in the study period. Baseline characteristics were analyzed and compared between the two groups after propensity score matching. The outcome variable was mortality fitted by a Cox proportional hazard model.
Results
After full matching between cases of CRRT use and controls (patients who did not receive CRRT) using propensity scores, 96 patients (27 cases, 69 controls) were analyzed. Propensity matching yielded adequate balance (standardized mean differences <0.25) for all covariates. We fit a Cox proportional hazards model with survival as the outcome and CRRT as a factor, including the matching weights in the estimation. The estimated hazard ratio was 0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.23–0.76; p=0.0044), indicating that CRRT reduced mortality.
Conclusion
In this propensity score-matched analysis, CRRT reduced mortality in patients who visited the hospital with acute glyphosate or glufosinate intoxication. In patients with acute herbicide poisoning with high severity calculated by the APACHE II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II) score and SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) score, CRRT should be actively considered to improve the survival rate.
Characteristics of poisoning patients visiting emergency departments before and after the COVID-19 pandemic
Jae Kee Seung, Cho Yongil, Kang Hyunggoo, Ho Lim Tae, Oh Jaehoon, Sung Ko Byuk, Lee Juncheol
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(2):66-74.   Published online December 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.2.66
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study investigates the characteristics and prognosis of acute poisoning patients visiting nationwide emergency departments before and after the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data were obtained from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). Methods: This nationwide retrospective observational study included acute poisoning patients who visited the emergency departments between February 1 to December 31, 2020, which has been determined as the pandemic period. The same periods in 2018 and 2019 were designated as the control periods. The primary outcome assessed was the length of stay in emergency departments (EDLOS). The secondary outcomes examined were intensive care unit admission rate and in-hospital mortality rate before and after the pandemic. A subgroup analysis was performed for inpatients and intentional poisoning patients. Results: A total of 163,560 patients were included in the study. During the pandemic, the proportion of women increased from 50.0% in 2018 and 50.3% in 2019 to 52.5% in 2020. Patients aged 20-29 years increased from 13.4% in 2018 and 13.9% in 2019 to 16.6% in 2020. A rise in cases of intentional poisoning was also noted - from 33.9% in 2018 and 34.0% in 2019 to 38.4% in 2020. Evaluating the hospitalized poisoned patients revealed that the EDLOS increased from 3.8 hours in 2018 and 3.7 hours in 2019 to 4.2 hours in 2020. ICU admissions were also markedly increased (2018, 48.2%; 2019, 51.8%; 2020, 53.2%) among hospitalized patients. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of acute poisoning patients visiting nationwide emergency departments in Korea. The proportion of young adults, women, and intentional poisoning patients has increased after the COVID-19 pandemic. Prolonged length of stay at the emergency department and an increased rate of intensive care unit admissions were determined in hospitalized acute poisoning patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Demographic characteristics of patients admitted to the emergency department for intoxication and a time series analysis during the COVID-19 period
    Bongmin Son, Nayoon Kang, Eunah Han, Gina Yu, Junho Cho, Jaiwoog Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Sung Phil Chung, Minhong Choa
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(2): 92.     CrossRef
  • Changes in the characteristics of acute carbon monoxide poisoning patients who visited the emergency department during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Jun bo Sim, Tae kyu Ahn, Hyun Kim
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(2): 108.     CrossRef
Clinical features related to alcohol co-ingestion of deliberate self-poisoning patients visiting the emergency department
Won Kim Gyu, Jeong Lee Woon, Kim Daehee, Young Lee June, Yun Kim Sang, Jeong Sikyoung, Hong Sungyoup, Hee Woo Seon
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(2):58-65.   Published online December 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.2.58
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Alcohol is one of the most commonly co-ingested agents in deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) cases presenting at the emergency department (ED). The increased impulsivity, aggressiveness, and disinhibition caused by alcohol ingestion may have different clinical features and outcomes in cases of DSP. This study investigates whether alcohol co-ingestion affects the clinical features and outcomes of DSP patients in the ED. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study. We investigated DSP cases who visited our ED from January 2010 to December 2016. Patients were classified into two groups: with (ALC+) or without (ALC–) alcohol co-ingestion. The clinical features of DSP were compared by considering the co-ingestion of alcohol, and the factors related to discharge against medical advice (AMA) of DSP were analyzed. Results: A total of 689 patients were included in the study, with 272 (39.5%) in the ALC+ group. Majority of the ALC+ group patients were middle-aged males (45-54 years old) and arrived at the ED at night. The rate of discharge AMA from ED was significantly higher in the ALC+ group (130; 47.8%) compared to the ALC– group (p=0.001). No significant differences were obtained in the poisoning severity scores between the two groups (p=0.223). Multivariate analysis revealed that alcohol co-ingestion (odds ratio [OR]=1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.98), alert mental status (OR=1.65; 95% CI, 1.17-2.32), past psychiatric history (OR=0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.28), age >65 years (OR=0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.78), and time from event to ED arrival >6 hrs (OR=0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.88) were independent predictive factors of discharge AMA (p=0.043, p=0.004, p=0.001, p=0.006, and p=0.010, respectively). Conclusion: Our results determined a high association between alcohol co-ingestion and the outcome of discharge AMA in DSP patients. Emergency physicians should, therefore, be aware that DSP patients who have co-ingested alcohol may be uncooperative and at high risk of discharge AMA.
The Prognosis of Glyphosate herbicide intoxicated patients according to their salt types
Min Gyu Jeong, Kyoung Tak Keum, Seongjun Ahn, Yong Hwan Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Kwang Won Cho, Seong Youn Hwang, Dong Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):83-92.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.83
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Glyphosate herbicide (GH) is a widely used herbicide and has been associated with significant mortality as poisoned cases increases. One of the reasons for high toxicity is thought to be toxic effect of its ingredient with glyphosate. This study was designed to determine differences in the clinical course with the salt-type contained in GH. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at a single hospital between January 2013 and December 2017. We enrolled GH-poisoned patients visited the emergency department. According to salt-type, patients were divided into 4 groups: isopropylamine (IPA), ammonium (Am), potassium (Po), and mixed salts (Mi) groups. The demographics, laboratory variables, complications, and their mortality were analyzed to determine clinical differences associated with each salt-type. Addtionally, we subdivided patients into survivor and non-survivor groups for investigating predictive factors for the mortality. Results: Total of 348 GH-poisoned patients were divided as follows: IPA 248, Am 41, Po 10, and Mi 49 patients. There was no difference in demographic or underlying disease history, but systolic blood pressure (SBP) was low in Po group. The ratio of intentional ingestion was higher in Po and Mi groups. Metabolic acidosis and relatively high lactate level were presented in Po group. As the primary outcome, the mortality rates were as follows: IPA, 26 (10.5%); Am, 2 (4.9%); Po, 1 (10%); and Mi, 1 (2%). There was no statistically significant difference in the mortality and the incidence of complications. Additionally, age, low SBP, low pH, corrected QT (QTc) prolongation, and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation were analyzed as independent predictors for mortality in a regression analysis. Conclusion: There was no statistical difference in their complications and the mortality across the GH-salt groups in this study.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between continuous renal replacement therapy and mortality after acute herbicide (glyphosate and/or glufosinate) intoxication: propensity score matching approach
    Seung Woo Lee, Won-joon Jeong, Seung Ryu, Yongchul Cho, Yeonho You, Jung Soo Park, Changshin Kang, Hong Joon Ahn, So Young Jeon, Jinwoong Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 17.     CrossRef
Association between defoliant exposure and survival to discharge after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
Dong Wook Kim, Yu Chan Kye, Jung Youp Lee, Eui Gi Jung, Dong Sung Kim, Hyun Jung Choi, Young Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(1):38-43.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.1.38
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: We investigated the association between defoliant exposure and survival to discharge after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study based on the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) registry. The electronic medical records of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims from 6/9/2008 to 12/31/2016 were analyzed statistically. The case patients group had a history of defoliant exposure while the control group did not. Among the 401 victims studied, a total of 110 patients were male out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. Baseline characteristics and the parameters involved in cardiac arrest were analyzed and compared between the two groups after propensity score matching. The primary outcome was survival to discharge, and secondary outcomes were sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to admission. Results: After propensity score matching a total of 50 patients (case=25, control=25) were analyzed. Primary outcome (survival to discharge) was not significantly different between case and control groups [(OR, 1.759; 95% C.I., 0.491-6.309) and (OR, 1.842; 95% C.I., 0.515-6.593), respectively]. In the subgroup analysis, there were also no significant differences between the control group and subgroups in primary and secondary outcomes according to defoliant exposure severity. Conclusion: There is no statistically significant association between defoliant exposure and survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Assessment and Methods of Nutritional Support during Atropinization in Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning Cases
Jong-uk Park, Young-gi Min, Sangcheon Choi, Dong-wan Ko, Eun Jung Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):123-129.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.123
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Purpose: Atropine is an antidote used to relieve muscarinic symptoms in patients with organophosphate and carbamate poisoning. Nutritional support via the enteral nutrition (EN) route might be associated with improved clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. This study examined the administration of nutritional support in patients undergoing atropinization, including methods of supply, outcomes, and complications. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital from 2010 to 2018. Forty-five patients, who were administered with atropine and on mechanical ventilation (MV) due to organophosphate or carbamate poisoning, were enrolled. Results: Nutritional support was initiated on the third day of hospitalization. Thirty-three patients (73.3%) were initially supported using parenteral nutrition (PN). During atropinization, 32 patients (71.1%) received nutritional support via EN (9) or PN (23). There was no obvious reason for not starting EN during atropinization (61.1%). Pneumonia was observed in both patient groups on EN and PN (p=0.049). Patients without nutritional support had a shorter MV duration (p=0.034) than patients with nutritional support. The methods of nutritional support during atropinization did not show differences in the number of hospital days (p=0.711), MV duration (p=0.933), duration of ICU stay (p=0.850), or recovery at discharge (p=0.197). Conclusion: Most patients undergoing atropinization were administered PN without obvious reasons to preclude EN. Nutritional support was not correlated with the treatment outcomes or pneumonia. From these results, it might be possible to choose EN in patients undergoing atropinization, but further studies will be necessary.
Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Glyphosate Poisoning
Hyung Hun Park, Kyu Ill Choi, Je Won Lee, Jung Min Park, Jinwook Park, Sang Moon Noh, Jaekyung Cho, Daero Lee, Jae Chul Cho, Dong Chan Park, Yang Hun Kim, Joo Hwan Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):110-115.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.110
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Purpose: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with glyphosate poisoning has a poor prognosis. This study aimed to predict the risk factors for AKI in patients with glyphosate poisoning at the emergency department (ED). Methods: Clinical data on glyphosate poisoning patients at ED who were older than 18 years were collected retrospectively between January 2013 and December 2019. The clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes of the AKI group in patients with glyphosate poisoning were compared with the non-AKI (NAKI) group. Results: Of 63 glyphosate poisoning patients, AKI was observed in 15 (23.8%). The AKI patients group showed the following: old age (p=0.038), low systolic blood pressure (p=0.021), large amount of ingestion (p=0.026), delayed hospital visits (p=0.009), high white blood cells (WBC) (p<0.001), high neutrophil counts (p<0.001), high neutrophil-lymphocyte (LN) ratios (p<0.001), high serum potassium (p=0.005), low arterial blood pH (p=0.015), and low pO2 (p=0.021), low bicarbonate (p=0.009), and high Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) (p<0.001). AKI patients required hemodialysis, ventilator care (p<0.001, p=0.002), and inotropics (p<0.001). They also showed more intensive care unit admission (p<0.001), longer hospitalization (p<0.001), and high mortality (p<0.001). Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that high WBCs (OR, 1.223) and increased LN ratios (OR, 1.414) were independently associated with the occurrence of AKI. Conclusion: In patients with glyphosate poisoning at ED, high WBCs and increased LN ratios can help predict the occurrence of AKI.
The Effects of Agent Orange in Patient with Pneumonia
Dong Sung Kim, Jungyoup Lee, Yu Chan Kye, Euigi Jung, Ki Young Jeong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(1):26-33.   Published online June 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.1.26
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Agent Orange (AO) is a herbicide and defoliant used by the United States and its military allies during the Vietnam War. Pneumonia is a common cause of death among Vietnam veterans in our hospital. There have been no previous studies researching any association between AO exposure and the prognosis for pneumonia. The primary objective of this study was to investigate associations between AO exposure and 30-day mortality due to pneumonia. The secondary objective was to examine the clinical factors associated with therapeutic outcomes in veterans with pneumonia, and to assess the prevalence of combined diseases in AO-exposed veterans. Methods: This study retrospectively included veteran patients diagnosed with pneumonia in the emergency department and hospitalized between February 2014 and March 2018. The enrolled patients were grouped according to their defoliant exposure history, and the clinical information of defoliant-exposed and non-defoliant-exposed groups were compared. Patients were divided according to 30-day mortality, and significant factors influencing mortality were evaluated by using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. The final multivariate model revealed the effect of AO exposure on therapeutic outcomes of pneumonia. Results: A total of 1006 patients were analyzed. Of these, 276 patients had a history of AO exposure, whereas 730 patients had not been exposed. Factors positively associated with 30-day mortality were malignancy, respiratory rate, blood urea nitrogen, and albumin which was negatively associated with mortality. Conclusion: Exposure to defoliant is not associated with 30-day mortality in patients with pneumonia. However, veterans with defoliant exposure are associated with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cerebrovascular accident, malignancy, and chronic kidney disease.
Associations between Early Hyperoxia and Long Term Neurologic Outcome in Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Ju Chan Kim, Byeong Jo Chun, Jeong Mi Moon, Young Soo Cho
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(1):18-25.   Published online June 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.1.18
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Purpose: We studied the impact of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) on the long term neurologic outcome in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: The study population included 311 patients who presented to emergency department with acute CO poisoning from January 2015 to January 2018. These patients underwent arterial blood gas testing at the time of presentation. The baseline demographic, clinical, laboratory, and clinical outcome data were recorded. The primary outcome of interest was the long term neurologic status. Results: The normoxia group was significantly older and it had a higher incidence of diffusion weighted MRI abnormality, and this group needed multiple HBO sessions compared to the group with moderate or severe hyperoxia. Also, the incidence of altered mentality at discharge was higher in the normoxia group than that of the moderate hyperoxia group. The incidence of a poor long term neurologic outcome was 11.3%. The incidence of a poor long term neurologic outcome decreased as the PaO2 increased. The PaO2 was significantly lower in patients with a poor long term neurologic outcome than that of the patients with a good outcome 198 (165.2 to 231.1) mmHg in the good outcome group vs. 154 (119-162) mmHg in poor outcome, p<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, PaO2 was selected as an independent factor of the poor long-term neurologic outcome (OR 0.981 (95% CI: 0.968 to 0.995)) Conclusion: Higher PaO2 was independently associated with a lower incidence of a poor long-term neurologic outcome.
Characteristics of Acute Herbicide Poisoning: Focused on Chlorophenoxy Herbicide
Hakyoon Song, Sangchun Choi, Yoon Seok Jung, Eunjung Park, Hyukhoon Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(2):126-131.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.2.126
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Herbicide-related mortality has decreased since the complete ban of paraquat product sales in 2012, but there still have been other herbicides intoxications with relatively severe complications. Glyphosate and glufosinate herbicides are used widely, and considerable research has been conducted. Chlorophenoxy herbicide is another major herbicide that has shown poor outcomes and mortality without proper management, but research in this area is lacking. Therefore, this study compared the clinical features of chlorophenoxy herbicide with those of other herbicides. Methods: The medical records of patients exposed to herbicides at a tertiary academic university hospital in Korea from May 2014 to April 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. The demographic and clinical data of 135 patients were then analyzed to identify the recent herbicides intoxication trends after the paraquat sales ban, focusing mainly on chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning. Results: Of the 135 patients, 13 patients (9.6%) had chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning. No significant differences in all the variables were observed between the chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning group and non-chlorophenoxy herbicides poisoning groups. Toxic symptoms after poisoning varied from nothing noticeable to confusion; none of the patients had severe complications after their treatments. Conclusion: Acute chlorophenoxy poisoning is relatively less severe, with lower mortality rates than glyphosate and glufosinate poisoning.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between continuous renal replacement therapy and mortality after acute herbicide (glyphosate and/or glufosinate) intoxication: propensity score matching approach
    Seung Woo Lee, Won-joon Jeong, Seung Ryu, Yongchul Cho, Yeonho You, Jung Soo Park, Changshin Kang, Hong Joon Ahn, So Young Jeon, Jinwoong Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 17.     CrossRef
A Preliminary Study for Effect of High Flow Oxygen through Nasal Cannula Therapy in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Young-Min Kim, Sang-Chul Kim, Kwan-Jin Park, Seok-Woo Lee, Ji-Han Lee, Hoon Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(2):102-107.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.2.102
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is one of the most common types of poisoning and a major health problem worldwide. Treatment options are limited to normobaric oxygen therapy, administered using a non-rebreather face mask or hyperbaric oxygen. Compared to conventional oxygen therapy, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNC) creates a positive pressure effect through high-flow rates. The purpose of this human pilot study is to determine the effects of HFNC on the rate of CO clearance from the blood, in patients with mild to moderate CO poisoning. Methods: CO-poisoned patients were administered 100% oxygen from HFNC (flow of 60 L/min). The fraction of COHb (fCOHb) was measured at 30-min intervals until it decreased to under 10%, and the half-life time of fCOHb (fCOHb t1/2) was subsequently determined. Results: At the time of ED arrival, a total of 10 patients had fCOHb levels ≥10%, with 4 patients ranging between 10% and 50%. The mean rate of fCOHb elimination patterns exhibits logarithmic growth curves that initially increase quickly with time (HFNC equation, Y=0.3388*X+11.67). The mean fCOHbt1/2 in the HFNC group was determined to be 48.5±12.4 minutes. Conclusion: In patients with mild to moderate CO poisoning, oxygen delivered via high flow nasal cannula is a safe and comfortable method to treat acute CO toxicity, and is effective in reducing the COHb half-life. Our results indicate HFNC to be a promising alternative method of delivering oxygen for CO toxicity. Validating the effectiveness of this method will require larger studies with clinical outcomes.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology