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6 "Organophosphates"
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Case Report
Pulmonary thromboembolism following organophosphate intoxication: a case report
Ji Ho Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):64-67.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Various symptoms manifest after organophosphate intoxication due to muscarinic, nicotinic, and central nervous system effects. Complications are common, and morbidity occurs due to respiratory center depression, cardiovascular complications, aspiration pneumonia, general weakness, and neurological symptoms. Some studies have reported a statistically significant association between organophosphate intoxication and deep vein thrombosis. However, cases of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) resulting from organophosphate poisoning are very rare. A 45-year-old male patient was transferred to our hospital after ingesting an unknown amount of an insecticide and receiving 6 L of gastric lavage at a local hospital. Other than nausea, no symptoms (e.g., dyspnea) were present, but a hemodynamic test showed an elevated lactic acid level, and metabolic acidosis worsened over time. Accordingly, we conducted initial treatment including continuous renal replacement therapy. After 7 hours, the poisoning analysis result was confirmed, and lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos (0.441 µg/mL and 0.401 µg/mL, respectively) were detected. We introduced pralidoxime. Although no increase in pseudocholinesterase was found during hospitalization, continuous renal replacement therapy and pralidoxime were discontinued because the patient did not show symptoms of intermediate syndrome, including dyspnea and altered consciousness. The patient complained of abdominal pain on hospital day 8. Abdominal computed tomography was performed to evaluate the possibility of a corrosive injury to the stomach or esophagus, and we confirmed PTE. The D-dimer level was 1.96 mg/L (normal range, 0–0.55 mg/dL). A radiologic examination showed a PTE in the main pulmonary artery leading to the segmental pulmonary artery. After heparinization, the patient was discharged after being prescribed a vitamin K-independent oral anticoagulant. Through this case, we would like to emphasize the need for a thorough evaluation of clinical symptoms because atypical symptoms can occur after poisoning with organophosphate pesticides.
Different Clinical Courses for Poisoning with WHO Hazard Class Ia Organophosphates EPN, Phosphamidon, and Terbufos in Humans
Jong Gu Mun, Jeong Mi Moon, Mi Jin Lee, Byeong Jo Chun
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):1-8.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.1
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Purpose: Extremely hazardous pesticides are classified as World Health Organization (WHO) hazard class Ia. However, data describing the clinical course of WHO class Ia OP (organophosphate) poisonings in humans are very scarce. Here, we compare the clinical features of patients who ingested hazard class Ia OPs. Methods: This retrospective observational case study included 75 patients with a history of ingesting ethyl p-nitrophenol thio-benzene phosphonate (EPN), phosphamidon, or terbufos. The patients were divided according to the chemical formulation of the ingested OP. Data regarding mortality and the development of complications were collected and compared among groups. Results: There were no differences in the baseline characteristics and severity scores at presentation between the three groups. No fatalities were observed in the terbufos group. The fatality rates in the EPN and phosphamidon groups were 11.8% and 28.6%, respectively. Patients poisoned with EPN developed respiratory failure later than those poisoned with phosphamidon and also tended to require longer mechanical ventilatory support than phosphamidon patients. The main cause of death was pneumonia in the EPN group and hypotensive shock in the phosphamidon group. Death occurred later in the EPN group than in the phosphamidon group. Conclusion: Even though all three drugs are classified as WHO class Ia OPs (extremely hazardous pesticides), their clinical courses and the related causes of death in humans varied. Their treatment protocols and predicted outcomes should therefore also be different based on the chemical formulation of the OP.
Initial Blood Glucose Can Predict the Outcome of OP Poisoning
Sung Do Lee, Jeong Mi Moon, Byeong Jo Chun
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):55-61.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Purpose: Many studies have examined the mechanisms of impaired glucose homeostasis after organophosphate (OP) exposure, however no study has evaluated the clinical utility of blood glucose measurements in patients with OP poisoning. The current study was conducted to evaluate the initial glucose level at presentation and the glycemic variables during the first 3 days after admission as a predictor of mortality. Methods: This retrospective observational case series included 228 patients with a history of OP poisoning. Among other clinical data, information on the initial glucose level at presentation and mean glucose level, delta glucose level, and the presence of a hypoglycemic event during the first 3 days of admission, was collected. Results: Survivors had lower initial glucose levels at presentation and glucose variability during the first 3 days of admission compared to non-survivors. The frequency of hypoglycemic events was higher in non-survivors. In multivariate analysis, the initial glucose level (> 233 mg/dl) was an independent predictor of mortality, along with age. Conclusion: The initial glucose level at presentation can be helpful in prediction of mortality in cases of OP intoxication at bedside. The physician should pay attention to patients with a glucose level >233 mg/dl at presentation after ingestion of OP.
A Case of Bentazone Poisoning Mimicking Organophosphate Intoxication
Hyun-Min Jung, Ji-Hye Kim, Seung-Baik Han, Jin-Hui Paik, Ji-Yoon Kim, Jun-Sig Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2010;8(2):122-124.   Published online December 31, 2010
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AbstractAbstract PDF
$Basagran^{(R)}$ is a herbicide that is widely used in the field and it acts by interfering with photosynthesis in plants. It consists of bentazone, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and surfactants. Bentazone is commonly used, but poisoning due to Bentazone has not been previously reported in Korea. The patients with toxic effects of bentazone show mild to severe symptoms and various complications. We report here on a case of a woman who intentionally ingested 500 ml of $Basagran^{(R)}$ and she was discharged without complication. As soon as the patient visited the emergency department, we started to treat her as if she had organophosphate intoxication because of the cholinergic symptoms. We could not detect the bentazone in her serum and urine, and we could confirm $Basagran^{(R)}$ ingestion only after getting information from her husband. Bentazone poisoning may induce harmful complications like muscle rigidity, rhabdomyolysis, respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. A detailed history taking, an accurate analysis method and early conservative management will be helpful for patients with acute bentazone poisoning.
Organophosphate-Pyrethroid Mixtures Poisoning
Dae-Young Hong, Kwang-Je Baek, Kyeong-Ryong Lee, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Jun-Sig Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):21-26.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: Owing to organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures are widely used, suicidal or unintentional poisoning is common. But there have been relatively few reports of poisoning. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the difference of the severity and toxicity between organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures poisoning and single organophosphate poisoning. Methods: From August 2005 to July 2006, 65 patients presented with organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures poisoning to emergency medical center. Date were gathered by report form it was drawn up. Results: 65 patients were enrolled in 28 hospitals and their mean age was $56.5{pm}16.2$ years old. The most common cause of poisoning was suicide, in 52 cases(80%). Chlorpyrifos-cypermethrin, malathion-esfenvalerate were the most frequent chemicals involved, and the mean ingestion amount was 135.4ml. The most common symptom of the patients was nausea/vomiting, in 16 patients. The average GCS score was 13. The mean ICU stay was $4.4{pm}5.2$ days, and mortality was 3.1%. Conclusion: The severity and toxicity of organophosphate-pyrethroid mixture poisoning were lower than that of single organophosphate poisoning.
Different Clinical Outcomes by Subgroups in Organophosphorus Poisoning
Duk-Hee Lee, Jin-Hee Jung, Koo-Young Jung, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):8-14.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: Organophosphorus insecticides tend to be regarded as a homogeneous single entity. We aimed to determine whether organophosphate poisoning differs by subgroups in clinical features and severity. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all patients with acute organophophorus poisoning from January 1998 to December 2006. We investigated clinical features, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), laboratory findings, QTc intervals, management, and outcomes. Results: A total of 109 patients were included. The dimethoxy group experienced significantly longer times than the diethoxy group for ventilation duration (0.6 day vs. 0.2 day, p=0.006), ICU duration (2.0 day vs. 0.8 day, p=0.037), and total admission duration (2.8 day vs. 0.9 day, p=0.008), except in cases of dichlorvos poisoning. Also, the GCS of the dimethoxy group (except with dichlorvos) was significantly lower than for the diethoxy group (dimethoxy, $11.2{pm}5.2$ vs. diethoxy, $13.8{pm}2.4$, p= 0.021). QTc intervals for the dimethoxy group (except with dichlorvos) tended to be somewhat greater than for the diethoxy group (dimethoxy, $452.9{pm}16.1;msec$ vs. diethoxy, $429.6{pm}40.9;msec$). There were 65 patients with dichlorvos ingestion, and 2 of these patients (3%) died. Conclusion: When compared to the diethoxy group, the dimethoxy group of organophosphates (with the exception of dichlorvos) were associated with poorer prognostic value for indicators such as GCS, QTc interval, requirement for intubation, ICU duration, and total admission duration. Within the dimethoxy group, patients with dichlorvos poisoning had relatively better prognoses than for the other dimethoxy group organophosphates studied.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology