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Case Report
A case of chronic licorice intoxication-induced apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome
Young Jae Lim, Ji Eun Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):151-155.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00020
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Licorice is a perennial herb belonging to the legume family that mainly grows in northeastern China, Mongolia, Siberia, and other regions. It is used in traditional medicine in the form of dried roots in the East and the West. The main active component of licorice, glycyrrhizin, is known to produce mineralocorticoid effects when consumed chronically, which can lead to apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome. Herein, we present the case of a 72-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency room with severe generalized weakness and difficulty keeping her neck upright, which had developed after daily consumption of licorice-infused water for the past 2 months. Blood tests revealed metabolic alkalosis and severe hypokalemia, and an electrocardiogram showed ventricular bigeminy. The patient was treated with daily potassium and spironolactone supplements, leading to a significant improvement in muscle strength after a week. One week later, the patient was discharged, showing rare ventricular premature contractions on electrocardiography, but with no specific complaints. Chronic licorice ingestion leading to hypokalemia and muscle weakness can be life-threatening, necessitating the discontinuation of the causative agent, close monitoring, and cautious supplementation of potassium and spironolactone as treatment.
Original Article
Demographic characteristics of patients admitted to the emergency department for intoxication and a time series analysis during the COVID-19 period
Bongmin Son, Nayoon Kang, Eunah Han, Gina Yu, Junho Cho, Jaiwoog Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Sung Phil Chung, Minhong Choa
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):92-107.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00011
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study investigated the characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients who visited the emergency department due to intoxication and analyzed the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on their visits.
Methods
A retrospective study was conducted using data from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) on patients who visited the emergency department due to intoxication between January 2014 and December 2020. In total, 277,791 patients were included in the study, and their demographic and clinical data were analyzed. A model was created from 2014 to 2019 and applied to 2020 (i.e., during the COVID-19 pandemic) to conduct a time series analysis distinguishing between unexpected accidents and suicide/self-harm among patients who visited the emergency department.
Results
The most common reason for visiting the emergency department was unintentional accidents (48.5%), followed by self-harm/suicide attempts (43.8%). Unexpected accident patients and self-harm/suicide patients showed statistically significant differences in terms of sex, age group, hospitalization rate, and mortality rate. The time series analysis showed a decrease in patients with unexpected accidents during the COVID-19 pandemic, but no change in patients with suicide/self-harm.
Conclusion
Depending on the intentionality of the intoxication, significant differences were found in the age group, the substance of intoxication, and the mortality rate. Therefore, future analyses of patients with intoxication should be stratified according to intentionality. In addition, the time series analysis of intentional self-harm/suicide did not show a decrease in 2010 in the number of patients, whereas a decrease was found for unintentional accidents.
Case Report
Pulmonary thromboembolism following organophosphate intoxication: a case report
Ji Ho Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):64-67.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Various symptoms manifest after organophosphate intoxication due to muscarinic, nicotinic, and central nervous system effects. Complications are common, and morbidity occurs due to respiratory center depression, cardiovascular complications, aspiration pneumonia, general weakness, and neurological symptoms. Some studies have reported a statistically significant association between organophosphate intoxication and deep vein thrombosis. However, cases of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) resulting from organophosphate poisoning are very rare. A 45-year-old male patient was transferred to our hospital after ingesting an unknown amount of an insecticide and receiving 6 L of gastric lavage at a local hospital. Other than nausea, no symptoms (e.g., dyspnea) were present, but a hemodynamic test showed an elevated lactic acid level, and metabolic acidosis worsened over time. Accordingly, we conducted initial treatment including continuous renal replacement therapy. After 7 hours, the poisoning analysis result was confirmed, and lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos (0.441 µg/mL and 0.401 µg/mL, respectively) were detected. We introduced pralidoxime. Although no increase in pseudocholinesterase was found during hospitalization, continuous renal replacement therapy and pralidoxime were discontinued because the patient did not show symptoms of intermediate syndrome, including dyspnea and altered consciousness. The patient complained of abdominal pain on hospital day 8. Abdominal computed tomography was performed to evaluate the possibility of a corrosive injury to the stomach or esophagus, and we confirmed PTE. The D-dimer level was 1.96 mg/L (normal range, 0–0.55 mg/dL). A radiologic examination showed a PTE in the main pulmonary artery leading to the segmental pulmonary artery. After heparinization, the patient was discharged after being prescribed a vitamin K-independent oral anticoagulant. Through this case, we would like to emphasize the need for a thorough evaluation of clinical symptoms because atypical symptoms can occur after poisoning with organophosphate pesticides.
Original Article
Association between continuous renal replacement therapy and mortality after acute herbicide (glyphosate and/or glufosinate) intoxication: propensity score matching approach
Seung Woo Lee, Won-joon Jeong, Seung Ryu, Yongchul Cho, Yeonho You, Jung Soo Park, Changshin Kang, Hong Joon Ahn, So Young Jeon, Jinwoong Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):17-23.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: We investigated the association between continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and mortality after acute glyphosate or glufosinate intoxication.
Methods
The electronic medical records of patients with acute herbicide ingestion who were admitted to the regional emergency center of a metropolitan city in Korea from 3/1/2013 to 2/28/2022 were analyzed and reviewed retrospectively. The case group received CRRT, while the control group did not. In total, 96 patients experienced acute herbicide intoxication in the study period. Baseline characteristics were analyzed and compared between the two groups after propensity score matching. The outcome variable was mortality fitted by a Cox proportional hazard model.
Results
After full matching between cases of CRRT use and controls (patients who did not receive CRRT) using propensity scores, 96 patients (27 cases, 69 controls) were analyzed. Propensity matching yielded adequate balance (standardized mean differences <0.25) for all covariates. We fit a Cox proportional hazards model with survival as the outcome and CRRT as a factor, including the matching weights in the estimation. The estimated hazard ratio was 0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.23–0.76; p=0.0044), indicating that CRRT reduced mortality.
Conclusion
In this propensity score-matched analysis, CRRT reduced mortality in patients who visited the hospital with acute glyphosate or glufosinate intoxication. In patients with acute herbicide poisoning with high severity calculated by the APACHE II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II) score and SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) score, CRRT should be actively considered to improve the survival rate.
Cardiac arrest and severe encephalopathy following e-cigarette nicotine intoxication: a case report
Park Jinwon, Yun Sunghyun
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(2):82-85.   Published online December 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.2.82
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Traditionally, most cases of nicotine poisoning have been due to ingestion of nicotine pesticides. However, the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has resulted in both intentional and unintentional exposure to concentrated liquid nicotine or “eliquid” leading to an increase in nicotine poisoning cases. However, fatalities following the ingestion of the e-liquid are extremely rare. We report a rare case of cardiac arrest and severe encephalopathy following the intentional ingestion of e-liquid. We present the case of a 20-year-old woman who intentionally ingested liquid nicotine intended for e-cigarette use. She was found in asystole and experienced a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after undergoing approximately 46 mins of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Her plasma nicotine levels were >500 ng/ml. Despite aggressive supportive care, she was found to have encephalopathy consistent with severe anoxic brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In recent times, there have been some reports of deaths following liquid nicotine ingestion. Our case illustrates the potential for fatal nicotine toxicity from ingestion of e-cigarettes.
Comparison of medical history based diagnosis and urine test using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in drug overdose
Ja-Young Lee, Kyungman Cha, Won Jung Jeong, Hyung Min Kim, Byung Hak So
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.1.1
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: In patients with acute drug overdose, identification of drugs ingested is crucial to make a precise diagnosis. In most cases, the diagnoses are made on the medical history and physical examination findings. This study was undertaken to determine the concordance of diagnosis made on the basis of patient history by comparing it with urine toxicology analysis. Methods: This was a retrospective study of drug intoxicated patients over 18 years old who presented to the emergency center from 2017 to 2019. Specimens from urine were tested using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TMS). The test results were compared with information obtained from patients. Diagnostic concordances for drug detection in intoxicated patients were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between clinical characteristics and diagnostic discrepancy. Results: Totally, 370 patients were included in the analysis. Overall, 66 types of drugs were detected by UPLC-TMS. The drugs detected most frequently were zolpidem (104, 27.8%), citalopram (70, 18.7%), and paracetamol (66, 17.6%). The mean diagnostic concordance of patients was 52.7%. There were statistically significant diagnostic discrepancies in patients with underlying depression and patients intoxicated with multiple types of drugs. Conclusion: In ED patients with acute drug overdose, the diagnoses made on history alone were often inaccurate. It is essential to perform urine toxicology tests such as UPLC-TMS as a confirmatory instrument to improve accuracy in evaluating patients with drug intoxication.
Assessment of early nutritional state in critical patients with intoxication and the effect of nutritional status on prognosis
Dong-wan Ko, Sangcheon Choi, Young-gi Min, Hyuk jin Lee, Eun Jung Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):93-99.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.93
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Nutritional status and support in critically ill patients are important factors in determining patient recovery and prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the early nutritional status and the methods of nutritional support in critically ill patients with acute poisoning and to evaluate the effect of nutritional status on prognosis. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in tertiary care teaching hospital from January 2018 to December 2020. in an emergency department of university hospital, 220 patients who were stayed more than 2 days of poisoning in intensive care unit were enrolled. Results: 155 (70.5%) of patients with acute poisoning had low-risk in nutritional risk screening (NRS). Patients with malignancy had higher NRS (low risk 5.2%, moderate risk 18.5%, high risk 13.2%, p=0.024). Patients of 91.4% supplied nutrition via oral route or enteral route. Parenteral route for starting method of nutritional support were higher in patients with acute poisoning of herbicide or pesticide (medicine 3.2%, herbicide 13.8%, pesticide 22.2%, p=0.000). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, herbicide or pesticide intoxication, higher risk in NRS and sequential organ failure assessment over 4.5 were affecting factor on poor recovery at discharge. Conclusion: NRS in patients intoxicated with herbicide or pesticide were higher than that in patients intoxicated with medicine intoxication. Enteral nutrition in patients intoxicated with herbicide or pesticide was less common. Initial NRS was correlated with recovery at discharge in patient with intoxication. It is expected to be helpful in finding patients with high-risk nutritional status in acute poisoning patients and establishing a treatment plan that can actively implement nutritional support.
Effects of N-acetylcystein on changes in parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the hippocampus after carbon monoxide poisoning
Seon Tae Kim, Su Jin Yoo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):100-109.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.100
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the injury of putative parvalbumin positive interneurons defined by molecular marker and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a marker of neural plasticity following acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1100 ppm CO for 40 minutes followed by 3000 ppm CO for 20 minutes. Animals received daily intraperitoneal injection of NAC (150 mg/kg) for 5 days after CO exposure. Changes in learning and spatial memory were evaluated by Y-maze test 5 days after the poisoning. In vivo LTP in hippocampal CA1 area was evaluated by using extracellular electrophysiological technique. Immunohistochemical staining were adopted to observe expressional damages of parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampus following the poisoning. Results: Acute CO intoxication resulted in no changes in memory performance at Y-maze test but a significant reduction of LTP in the in hippocampal CA1 area. There was also a significant reduction of PV (+) interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 area 5 days after CO poisoning. Daily treatment of NAC significantly improved hippocampal LTP impairment and reduced immunoreactivity for PV in the hippocampus following the acute CO poisoning. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that reduction of hippocampal LTP and PV (+) interneurons in the hippocampus is sensitive indicator for brain injury and daily NAC injections can be the alternative therapeutics for the injury induced by acute CO poisoning.
Availability of urine toxicologic screening tests in the emergency department: focused on illegal drugs
Se Kyu Lee, Sangchun Choi
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(1):24-30.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.1.24
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: In Korea, it is predicted that the proportion of drug abusers among patients visiting the emergency room will soon increase. Several emergency medical institutions in Korea are conducting field urine screening tests for poisoning. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and usefulness of urine toxicology screening tests. Methods: The medical records of patients with positive results for tetrahydrocannabinol and methamphetamine from urine toxicology screening tests at a tertiary university hospital from August 2016 to August 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. The subjects were classified into positive and false-positive groups, and their clinical characteristics were compared and analyzed. Results: Of the 2,026 patients surveyed, 823 patients (40.6%) tested positive for one or more drugs. Among them, 12 cases (0.6%) were positive for methamphetamine and 40 cases (2.0%) were positive for tetrahydrocannabinol. The positive and the false-positive rates for methamphetamine were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. The positive and the false-positive rates for tetrahydrocannabinol were 2.5% and 97.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Methamphetamine showed a relatively low false-positive rate in our study. Therefore, this test seemed to assist in diagnosing methamphetamine poisoning when considered together with the present illness and physical examination results. On the other hand, the high false-positive rate for tetrahydrocannabinol tests indicates that this test was unlikely to assist in diagnosing tetrahydrocannabinol poisoning. However, considering the growing trend of illegal drug abusers in Korea, it may still be useful as a diagnostic tool for identifying drug users.
QTc Prolongation due to Psychotropic Drugs Intoxication and Its Risk Assessment
Kwan Ho Park, Hoon Pyo Hong, Jong Seok Lee, Ki Young Jeong, Seok Hun Ko, Sung Kyu Kim, Han Sung Choi
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):66-77.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.66
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The aims of the present study were twofold. First, the research investigated the effect of an individual's risk factors and the prevalence of psychotropic drugs on QTc prolongation, TdP (torsades de pointes), and death. Second, the study compared the risk scoring systems (the Mayo Pro-QT risk score and the Tisadale risk score) on QTc prolongation. Methods: The medical records of intoxicated patients who visited the emergency department between March 2010 and February 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. Among 733 patients, the present study included 426 psychotropic drug-intoxicated patients. The patients were categorized according to the QTc value. The known risk factors of QTc prolongation were examined, and the Mayo Pro-QT risk score and the Tisadale risk score were calculated. The analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression, Spearman correlation, and ROC (receiver operating characteristic). Results: The numbers in the mild to moderate group (male: 470≤QTc<500 ms, female: 480≤QTc<500 ms) and severe group (QTc≥500 ms or increase of QTc at least 60ms from baseline, both sex) were 68 and 95, respectively. TdP did not occur, and the only cause of death was aspiration pneumonia. The statically significant risk factors were multidrug intoxications of TCA (tricyclic antidepressant), atypical antipsychotics, an atypical antidepressant, panic disorder, and hypokalemia. The Tisadale risk score was larger than the Mayo Pro-QT risk score. Conclusion: Multiple psychotropic drugs intoxication (TCA, an atypical antidepressant, and atypical antipsychotics), panic disorder, and hypokalemia have been proven to be the main risk factors of QTc prolongation, which require enhanced attention. The present study showed that the Tisadale score had a stronger correlation and predictive accuracy for QTc prolongation than the Mayo Pro-QT score. As a result, the Tisadale risk score is a crucial assessment tool for psychotropic drug-intoxicated patients in a clinical setting.
Acute Nicotine Poisoning due to Electronic Cigarette Liquid: Systematic Review of Case Reports
Si Yong Yang, Min Hong Choa, Je Sung You, Hyun Soo Chung, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):51-56.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.51
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Acute nicotine poisoning by liquid nicotine in electronic cigarettes is becoming an increasing problem worldwide. The current systematic review aimed to determine the harm of acute nicotine poisoning by reviewing published case reports. Methods: An online literature search with PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed database was performed to identify relevant studies addressing acute nicotine poisoning with electronic cigarettes. Two investigators searched the case reports written in English or Korean. Results: Twenty-six cases were included in this study. The routes of intoxication included ingestion in 18 cases, intravenous injection in three cases, subcutaneous injection in two cases, and ocular exposure in two cases. Ten cases had a cardiac arrest, and seven of them died. Seven out of 12 cases with intentional poisoning had a cardiac arrest. Nine children under 18 years were reported, and three of them had a cardiac arrest. Sixteen cases without a cardiac arrest recovered well, except for one case with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Conclusion: The authors reviewed the risks of electronic cigarette liquid in terms of acute poisoning through a systematic review. The nicotine solution of an e-cigarette can be life-threatening in cases of acute poisoning. Therefore, active emergency treatment with early recognition is necessary. In addition, various management methods and regulations for preventing acute nicotine poisoning, such as restriction of distribution and nicotine concentration, should be considered.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Electronic Nicotine, Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems, and Liquid Use by Flavoring and Nicotine Concentrations
    Yeun Soo Yang, Hyeon Jeong Lim, Unchong Kim, Kyoungin Na, Heejin Kimm
    Journal of the Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.2023; 14(3): 101.     CrossRef
Predicting Factors Associated with Large Amounts of Glyphosate Intoxication in the Early-Stage Emergency Department: QTc Interval Prolongation
Dong-Soo Kyung, Jae-Cheon Jeon, Woo Ik Choi, Sang-Hun Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):130-135.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.130
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Taking large amounts of glyphosate is life-threatening, but the amounts of glyphosate taken by patients for suicide are not known precisely. The purpose of this study was to find the predictors of large amounts of glyphosate ingestion. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed patients presenting to an emergency department with glyphosate intoxication between 2010 and 2019, in a single tertiary hospital. The variables associated with the intake amounts were investigated. The parameters were analyzed by multivariate variate logistic regression analyses and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Of the 28 patients with glyphosate intoxication, 15 (53.6%) were in the large amounts group. Univariate analysis showed that metabolic acidosis, lactic acid, and corrected QT (QTc) interval were significant factors. In contrast, multivariate analysis presented the QTc interval as the only independent factor with intoxication from large amounts of glyphosate. (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.073, 1.011-1.139; p=0.020) The area under the ROC curve of the QTc interval was 0.838. Conclusion: The QTc interval is associated significantly with patients who visit the emergency department after being intoxicated by large amounts of glyphosate. These conclusions will help in the initial triage of patients with glyphosate intoxication.
Risk Factors to Predict Acute Respiratory Failure in Patients with Acute Pesticide Poisoning
Nam-Jun Cho, Samel Park, Eun Young Lee, Hyo-Wook Gil
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):116-122.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.116
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Acute respiratory failure is an important risk factor for mortality in patients with acute pesticide poisoning. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the risk factors to predict respiratory failure in these patients. This study retrospectively investigated the clinical features of respiratory failure among patients with acute pesticide poisoning requiring mechanical ventilation. This study included patients who were admitted with intentional poisoning by pesticide ingestion from January 2017 to December 2019. Paraquat intoxication was excluded. Among 469 patients with acute pesticide poisoning, 398 patients were enrolled in this study. The respiratory failure rate was 30.4%. The rate of respiratory failure according to the type of pesticide was carbamate (75.0%), organophosphate (52.6%), glufosinate (52.1%), glyphosate (23%), pyrethroid (8.9%), and others (17%). The mortality was 25.6% in the respiratory failure group. The risk factors for respiratory failure were old age, low body mass index, and ingestion of more than 300 mL. In conclusion, respiratory failure is a risk factor for mortality in pesticide poisoning. Old age, low body mass index, and ingestion of more than 300 mL are the risk factors for predicting respiratory failure.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
    Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Machine Learning-Based Prediction Models of Acute Respiratory Failure in Patients with Acute Pesticide Poisoning
    Yeongmin Kim, Minsu Chae, Namjun Cho, Hyowook Gil, Hwamin Lee
    Mathematics.2022; 10(24): 4633.     CrossRef
Treatments of Calcium Channel Blocker Overdose
Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(1):1-10.   Published online June 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.1.1
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Pharmaceutical agents are the most common causes of poisoning in Korea. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are commonly used in Korea for the management of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, but are associated with a risk of mortality due to overdose. Due to the frequent fatalities associated with CCB overdose, it is essential that the emergency physician is capable of identifying CCB intoxication, and has the knowledge to manage CCB overdose. This article reviews the existing clinical guidelines, retrospective studies, and systematic reviews on the emergency management of CCB overdose. The following are the varied treatments of CCB overdose currently administered. 1) For asymptomatic patients: observation with enough time and decontamination, if indicated. 2) For symptomatic patients: infusion of calcium salt, high dose insulin therapy, and vasopressor (norepinephrine) or atropine for bradycardia. 3) For patients refractory to the first line therapy or with refractory shock or impending arrest: lipid emulsion therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. 4) As adjunct therapy: phosphodiesterase inhibitors, glucagon, methylene blue, pacemaker for AV block. Small CCB ingestion is known to be fatal for pediatric patients. Hence, close observation for sufficient time is required.
Application of Thallium Autometallography for Observation of Changes in Excitability of Rodent Brain following Acute Carbon Monoxide Intoxication
Min Soo Lee, Seung Bum Yang, Jun Ho Heo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(2):66-78.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.2.66
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Purpose: Thallium (TI+) autometallography is often used for the imaging of neuronal metabolic activity in the rodent brain under various pathophysiologic conditions. The purpose of this study was to apply a thallium autometallographic technique to observe changes in neuronal activity in the forebrain of rats following acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication. Methods: In order to induce acute CO intoxication, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1100 ppm of CO for 40 minutes, followed by 3000 ppm of CO for 20 minutes. Animals were sacrificed at 30 minutes and 5 days after induction of acute CO intoxication for thallium autometallography. Immunohistochemical staining and toluidine blue staining were performed to observe cellular damage in the forebrain following intoxication. Results: Acute CO intoxication resulted in significant reduction of TI+ uptake in major forebrain structures, including the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and striatum. In the cortex and hippocampal CA1 area, marked reduction of TI+ uptake was observed in the cell bodies and dendrites of pyramidal neurons at 30 minutes following acute CO intoxication. There was also strong uptake of TI+ in astrocytes in the hippocampal CA3 area following acute CO intoxication. However, there were no significant histological findings of cell death and no reduction of NeuN (+) neuronal populations in the cortex and hippocampus at 5 days after acute CO intoxication. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that thallium autometallography can be a new and useful technique for imaging functional changes in neural activity of the forebrain structure following mild to moderate CO intoxication.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology