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7 "Emergency treatment"
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Original Article
The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):1-16.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00007
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose: This study investigated the actual incidence of acute poisoning in Korea on a nationwide scale, with the aim of laying the groundwork for future initiatives in prevention, strategic antidote distribution, and the development of effective emergency treatment for acute poisoning.
Methods
The study analyzed data from 3,038 patients who presented to emergency departments with poisoning-related conditions from June 1, 2022 to December 31, 2022 at 10 sites in nine cities across the country. We extracted data on general characteristics of the poisoning cases, including demographic characteristics (age and gender), place of exposure, reason for poisoning, route of exposure, and the substance involved in the poisoning incident. Age-related patterns in reasons for poisoning, medical outcomes, frequent and primary poisoning substances, and deaths were also analyzed.
Results
The population analyzed in our study was predominantly female, with women constituting 54.74% of all cases. Among infants and children, non-intentional poisoning due to general accidents was the most common cause, accounting for 71.43% of cases. Conversely, suicidal poisoning was more prevalent among teenagers and adults over 20. Fifty-two patients died during the study period, with males comprising approximately two-thirds (67.31%) of these fatalities. Pesticides were the most common poisoning substance among those who died, accounting for 55.77% of such cases. Notably, a significant majority of the victims were elderly individuals aged 60 and above.
Conclusion
This study holds substantial significance, since it represents the first comprehensive investigation and analysis of the symptoms, treatment, and causes of death due to poisoning in Korea on a national scale. By substantially expanding the range and types of poisonous substances examined, we were able to more precisely identify the characteristics and clinical patterns of poisoning cases nationwide.
Acute Nicotine Poisoning due to Electronic Cigarette Liquid: Systematic Review of Case Reports
Si Yong Yang, Min Hong Choa, Je Sung You, Hyun Soo Chung, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):51-56.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.51
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Acute nicotine poisoning by liquid nicotine in electronic cigarettes is becoming an increasing problem worldwide. The current systematic review aimed to determine the harm of acute nicotine poisoning by reviewing published case reports. Methods: An online literature search with PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed database was performed to identify relevant studies addressing acute nicotine poisoning with electronic cigarettes. Two investigators searched the case reports written in English or Korean. Results: Twenty-six cases were included in this study. The routes of intoxication included ingestion in 18 cases, intravenous injection in three cases, subcutaneous injection in two cases, and ocular exposure in two cases. Ten cases had a cardiac arrest, and seven of them died. Seven out of 12 cases with intentional poisoning had a cardiac arrest. Nine children under 18 years were reported, and three of them had a cardiac arrest. Sixteen cases without a cardiac arrest recovered well, except for one case with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Conclusion: The authors reviewed the risks of electronic cigarette liquid in terms of acute poisoning through a systematic review. The nicotine solution of an e-cigarette can be life-threatening in cases of acute poisoning. Therefore, active emergency treatment with early recognition is necessary. In addition, various management methods and regulations for preventing acute nicotine poisoning, such as restriction of distribution and nicotine concentration, should be considered.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Electronic Nicotine, Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems, and Liquid Use by Flavoring and Nicotine Concentrations
    Yeun Soo Yang, Hyeon Jeong Lim, Unchong Kim, Kyoungin Na, Heejin Kimm
    Journal of the Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.2023; 14(3): 101.     CrossRef
Characteristics of Acute Herbicide Poisoning: Focused on Chlorophenoxy Herbicide
Hakyoon Song, Sangchun Choi, Yoon Seok Jung, Eunjung Park, Hyukhoon Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(2):126-131.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.2.126
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Herbicide-related mortality has decreased since the complete ban of paraquat product sales in 2012, but there still have been other herbicides intoxications with relatively severe complications. Glyphosate and glufosinate herbicides are used widely, and considerable research has been conducted. Chlorophenoxy herbicide is another major herbicide that has shown poor outcomes and mortality without proper management, but research in this area is lacking. Therefore, this study compared the clinical features of chlorophenoxy herbicide with those of other herbicides. Methods: The medical records of patients exposed to herbicides at a tertiary academic university hospital in Korea from May 2014 to April 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. The demographic and clinical data of 135 patients were then analyzed to identify the recent herbicides intoxication trends after the paraquat sales ban, focusing mainly on chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning. Results: Of the 135 patients, 13 patients (9.6%) had chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning. No significant differences in all the variables were observed between the chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning group and non-chlorophenoxy herbicides poisoning groups. Toxic symptoms after poisoning varied from nothing noticeable to confusion; none of the patients had severe complications after their treatments. Conclusion: Acute chlorophenoxy poisoning is relatively less severe, with lower mortality rates than glyphosate and glufosinate poisoning.

Citations

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  • Association between continuous renal replacement therapy and mortality after acute herbicide (glyphosate and/or glufosinate) intoxication: propensity score matching approach
    Seung Woo Lee, Won-joon Jeong, Seung Ryu, Yongchul Cho, Yeonho You, Jung Soo Park, Changshin Kang, Hong Joon Ahn, So Young Jeon, Jinwoong Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 17.     CrossRef
Epidemiologic Characteristics of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Emergency Department Based Injury In-depth Surveillance of Twenty Hospitals
Sohyun Bae, Jisook Lee, Kyunghwan Kim, Junseok Park, Dongwun Shin, Hyunjong Kim, Joonmin Park, Hoon Kim, Woochan Jeon
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(2):122-128.   Published online December 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2016.14.2.122
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed data from the Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Surveillance of 20 hospitals (2011-2014). We included patients whose mechanism of injury was acute CO poisoning caused by inhalation of gases from charcoal or briquettes. We surveyed the annual frequency, gender, age, result of emergency treatment, rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, result of admission, association with alcohol, and place of accident. We also surveyed the cause and experience of past suicide attempts by intentional poisoning. Results: A total of 3,405 patients were included (2,015 (59.2%) and 1,390 (40.8%) males and females, respectively) with a mean age of $39.83{pm}18.51$ year old. The results revealed that the annual frequency of CO poisoning had increased and the frequency of unintentional CO poisoning was higher than that of intentional CO poisoning in January, February and December. The mean age of intentional CO poisoning was younger than that of unintentional CO poisoning ($38.41{pm}13.03$ vs $40.95{pm}21.83$) (p<0.001). The rates of discharge against medical advice (DAMA), ICU care and alcohol association for intentional CO poisoning were higher than for unintentional CO poisoning (36.4% vs 14.0%, 17.8% vs 4.7%, 45.2% vs 5.6%) (p<0.001). The most common place of CO poisoning was in one's residence. Conclusion: The annual frequency of total CO poisoning has increased, and unintentional CO poisoning showed seasonal variation. DAMA, ICU care, and alcohol association of intentional CO poisoning were higher than those of unintentional CO poisoning.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Korea: Analysis of National Claims Data in 2010–2019
    Eunah Han, Gina Yu, Hye Sun Lee, Goeun Park, Sung Phil Chung
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
A Case of Hydrogen Cyanide Inhalation at Working -A Case Report-
Yang-Weon Kim, Young-Jin Eom
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(1):55-57.   Published online June 30, 2006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Cyanides and Hydrogen cyanide are used in production of chemicals, electroplating, photographic development, making plastics, fumigating ships, and some mining processes. We experienced of Hydrogen cyanide inhalation injury. A 45-year-old man worked at electroplating. As soon as he mixed sodium cyanide with acid, cyanide produced hydrogen cyanide, occasionally he inhaled Hydrogen cyanide and he lost his consciousness. He was moved to near hospital and took emergency treatment and then was transferred to our hospital. On arrival he had severe dyspnea, metabolic acidosis, and tachycardia. After he was treated with supportive method he recovered his consciousness in 20 hours at emergency room.
The Clinical Investigation of Gastric Lavage in Patients with Acute Poisoning
Taek Geun Ok, Jun Hwi Cho, Chan Woo Park, Seung Whan Cheon, Seung Yong Lee, Sung Eun Kim, Ki-Hoon Choi, Ji Hoon Hae, Jeong Yeul Seo, Hee Cheol Ahn, Moo Eob Ahn, Byung Ryul Cho, Yong Hoon Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(1):22-26.   Published online June 30, 2005
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The majority of acute toxic poisoning occur via oral route. The most important emergency treatment of acute poisoning are gastric lavage. Gastric lavage should be considered a patient has ingested a potentially life-threatening amount of a poison and the procedure can be undertaken within 60 mins of ingestion. But, gastric lavage does not consist properly in the cases of emergency situation or an inexperienced doctors treat. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gastric lavage is performed properly. Eighty patients were enrolled in the study in 12-month period from January to December 2002. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients identified as drug overdose who admitted to ER. To assess whether there was a subgroup of patients who may have been candidates for the initiation of gastric lavage in the ER, the patients divided in two groups by time interval from toxin ingestion to ER arrival. The group 1 that admit within 60 minutes after drug ingestion was 38 cases ($47.5\%$), and the group 2 patient who admitted after 60 minutes was 42 cases ($52.5\%$). The average age was $44pm19$ years in group 1, and $48pm24$ years in group 2. There were no differences in sexual distribution of two groups. The mean time interval was $49pm20$ minutes in the group $1,258pm190$ minutes in the group 2. Only thirty ($37.5\%$) of the patients had an overdose for which the treatment of gastric lavage was potentially feasible according to guideline. The correctly performed gastric lavage was 18 ($47.4\%$) in group 1, 12 ($28.6\%$) in group 2. We must enforce education about the gastric lavage, and do so that may treat according to guideline.
Trends Analysis of Suicidal Poisoning in Korea- Comparison before and after the IMF Crisis and the Economic Recession
Won Jae Lee, Kyu Nam Park, Seung Pil Choi, Mi Jin Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(1):33-39.   Published online June 30, 2005
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Purpose: Nowadays the Korean society is in the center of time of the social change. Because of dissociation of traditional family, IMF (International Monetary Fund) crisis and economic recession, the mortality rate of suicidal attempts are increasing annually. The majority of suicidal attempts were by poisoning considering the characteristics of korean society. Therefore we studied to find out the characteristics of suicidal poisoning before and after social economic stress, and to suggest the direction for the proper management. Methods: We reviewed medical records of 547 patients of suicide by poisoning who visited the emergency medical centers of St. Mary's hospitals from 1997 to 2004. For the annual trends analysis, we analyzed the demographic and toxicologic data of these patients compared with before and after IMF crisis (1998) and the economic recession ($2003~2004$). Results: At the time of IMF and the economic recession, the number of suicidal poisoning increased, especially in fifth decade. The refusal rate of toxicological emergency treatment increased. Also the mortality rate and the admission rate to ICU (Intensive Care Unit) increased during the same period. In the result of the comparison analysis, clinical severity and mortality of social problem group were higher. However they couldn't be treated appropriately because of financial problem and the family indifference. Conclusion: At the economic recession period, the severity of suicidal poisoned patients was high. But the refusal rate of toxicologic treatment also increased, so the patients had lost the chance for proper toxicologic treatment. Therefore they would be supported by medical institution and public health.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology