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JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

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Different Clinical Courses for Poisoning with WHO Hazard Class Ia Organophosphates EPN, Phosphamidon, and Terbufos in Humans
Jong Gu Mun, Jeong Mi Moon, Mi Jin Lee, Byeong Jo Chun
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):1-8.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.1
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Purpose: Extremely hazardous pesticides are classified as World Health Organization (WHO) hazard class Ia. However, data describing the clinical course of WHO class Ia OP (organophosphate) poisonings in humans are very scarce. Here, we compare the clinical features of patients who ingested hazard class Ia OPs. Methods: This retrospective observational case study included 75 patients with a history of ingesting ethyl p-nitrophenol thio-benzene phosphonate (EPN), phosphamidon, or terbufos. The patients were divided according to the chemical formulation of the ingested OP. Data regarding mortality and the development of complications were collected and compared among groups. Results: There were no differences in the baseline characteristics and severity scores at presentation between the three groups. No fatalities were observed in the terbufos group. The fatality rates in the EPN and phosphamidon groups were 11.8% and 28.6%, respectively. Patients poisoned with EPN developed respiratory failure later than those poisoned with phosphamidon and also tended to require longer mechanical ventilatory support than phosphamidon patients. The main cause of death was pneumonia in the EPN group and hypotensive shock in the phosphamidon group. Death occurred later in the EPN group than in the phosphamidon group. Conclusion: Even though all three drugs are classified as WHO class Ia OPs (extremely hazardous pesticides), their clinical courses and the related causes of death in humans varied. Their treatment protocols and predicted outcomes should therefore also be different based on the chemical formulation of the OP.
Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis by Initial Endoscopic Severity in Caustic Injury
Sang Min Lee, Woo Ik Choi, Sung Jin Kim, Sang Chan Jin
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):87-94.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Purpose: We investigated comparison of clinical characteristics and prognosis by initial endoscopic severity in caustic injury and then discussed predisposing factors which can be helpful in predicting the prognosis and determining the treatment. Methods: This study was a retrospective review of medical records from patients over the age of 15, who underwent initial endoscopy for caustic injury from April 2007 through November 2014. Patients were classified according to two groups based on the initial endoscopic finding by Zargar's classification: patients with grade 0, I, IIa at esophagus (low risk group) and patients with grade IIb, IIIa, IIIb at esophagus (high risk group). The two groups were then compared. Results: A total of 55 patients were included (low risk group [n=44] vs. high risk group [n=11]). Old age (p<0.001), large amount of ingestion (p<0.05), oropharyngeal symptoms (p<0.01), high SOFA score (p<0.001), high WBC count (p<0.05), low base excess (p<0.01), and HCO3 (p<0.05) were statistically significant factors in the high risk group. A poor prognosis was observed for hospital stay (p<0.001), ICU admission (p<0.001), mortality (p<0.01), and stricture (p<0.001) in the high risk group. Conclusion: Clinical characteristics including age, amount of ingestion, oropharyngeal symptoms, SOFA score, WBC count, base excess, and $HCO_3$ can be helpful in the decision to undergo initial endoscopy and risk assessment by initial endoscopic severity can be helpful in predicting prognosis and determining the treatment plan.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology