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Case Report
Pulmonary thromboembolism following organophosphate intoxication: a case report
Ji Ho Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):64-67.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Various symptoms manifest after organophosphate intoxication due to muscarinic, nicotinic, and central nervous system effects. Complications are common, and morbidity occurs due to respiratory center depression, cardiovascular complications, aspiration pneumonia, general weakness, and neurological symptoms. Some studies have reported a statistically significant association between organophosphate intoxication and deep vein thrombosis. However, cases of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) resulting from organophosphate poisoning are very rare. A 45-year-old male patient was transferred to our hospital after ingesting an unknown amount of an insecticide and receiving 6 L of gastric lavage at a local hospital. Other than nausea, no symptoms (e.g., dyspnea) were present, but a hemodynamic test showed an elevated lactic acid level, and metabolic acidosis worsened over time. Accordingly, we conducted initial treatment including continuous renal replacement therapy. After 7 hours, the poisoning analysis result was confirmed, and lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos (0.441 µg/mL and 0.401 µg/mL, respectively) were detected. We introduced pralidoxime. Although no increase in pseudocholinesterase was found during hospitalization, continuous renal replacement therapy and pralidoxime were discontinued because the patient did not show symptoms of intermediate syndrome, including dyspnea and altered consciousness. The patient complained of abdominal pain on hospital day 8. Abdominal computed tomography was performed to evaluate the possibility of a corrosive injury to the stomach or esophagus, and we confirmed PTE. The D-dimer level was 1.96 mg/L (normal range, 0–0.55 mg/dL). A radiologic examination showed a PTE in the main pulmonary artery leading to the segmental pulmonary artery. After heparinization, the patient was discharged after being prescribed a vitamin K-independent oral anticoagulant. Through this case, we would like to emphasize the need for a thorough evaluation of clinical symptoms because atypical symptoms can occur after poisoning with organophosphate pesticides.
A case of various clinical aspects associated with cardiotoxicity after glufosinate poisoning
Seon Tae Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):133-138.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.133
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Glufosinate-containing herbicides is a non-selective herbicide commonly used worldwide. As the use of them increased gradually since paraquat was banned in 2012, the number of suicides by their ingestion is also increasing continuously. Complications of glufosinate-containing herbicide poisoning include various central nervous system (CNS) toxicities such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, memory impairment, and respiratory depression, which may be accompanied by hemodynamic changes such as bradycardia and hypotension. However, it is very rare that arrhythmias other than bradycardia occurred and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was combined due to cardiotoxicity. A 71-year-old female patient was transferred to our hospital after ingesting 500 mL of glufosinate-containing herbicide and receiving 5 L of gastric lavage at a local hospital. A few hours later, she presented stuporous mentality, respiratory depression, and convulsions, and was accompanied by hypotension and bradycardia. On the second day of admission, electrocardiogram (ECG) showed bradycardia and QTc prolongation with hemodynamic Instability. Accordingly, we conducted the early treatment with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and the application of temporary cardiac pacemaker. An echocardiogram demonstrated decreased ejection fraction (EF) and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy on the third day of admission. Then, she was discharged safely with conservative treatment. At the follow-up after 1 year, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, EF and QTc prolongation were recovered on echocardiogram and ECG. Because cardiac toxicity after glufosinate-containing herbicide poisoning may cause life-threatening consequences, caution is required while treating the patient. Therefore, if electrocardiogram changes are seen in the elderly with a large amount of glufosinate herbicide ingestion, additional cardiac function test through echocardiography should be concerned, and early treatment through CRRT or artificial cardiac pacing should be considered.
Effect of Alcohol on Death Rate in Organophosphate Poisoned Patients
Yong Hun Min, Seung Min Park, Kui Ja Lee, Young Taeck Oh, Hee Cheol Ahn, You Dong Sohn, Ji Yun Ahn, Young Hwan Lee, Sang Ook Ha, Yu Jung Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):19-24.   Published online June 30, 2015
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Purpose: Many patients who are acutely poisoned with organophosphorus pesticides have co-ingested alcohol. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence mortality in organophosphate intoxication and the differences between alcohol coingested patients and non-coingested patients, looking at vital signs, length of admission, cholinesterase activity, complications, and mortality. Methods: All patients visiting one Emergency Department (ED) with organophosphate intoxication between January 2000 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups, alcohol coingested group and non-coingested group. Results: During the study period, 136 patients (alcohol coingested group, 95 patients; non-coingested group, 41 patients) presented to the ED with organophosphate intoxication. Seventy-one alcohol coingested patients (74.1%) vs. 16 non-coingested patients (39.0%) received endotracheal intubation, with results of the analysis showing a clear distinction between the two groups (p=0.001). Twenty-three alcohol coingested patients (24.2%) vs. 1 non-coingested patient (2.4%) required inotropics, indicating a significant gap (p=0.002). Twenty-eight alcohol coingested patients (29.5%) vs. 2 non-coingested patients (4.9%) died, with results of the analysis showing a clear distinction between the two groups (p=0.002). Conclusion: In cases of organophosphate intoxication, alcohol coingested patients tended to receive endotracheal intubation, went into shock, developed central nervous system complications, and more died.
A Case Report of a First Sulfoximine Class of Insecticide, Sulfoxaflor Poisoning
Jaehoon Oh, Hyunggoo Kang, Tae Ho Lim, Sanghyun Lee, Chiwon Ahn
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):43-45.   Published online June 30, 2015
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Sulfoxaflor is the first insecticide belonging to the sulfoximine class and is efficient against sap-feeding insects that are resistant to other insecticides. Sulfoxaflor acts as a neurotoxin to the central nervous system of insects compared with very low toxicity to mammalian. We report on a case of a 67-year-old male who ingested insecticide and received conservative treatment for mild metabolic acidosis and gastrointestinal symptoms.
A Case of Central Nervous System (CNS) Toxicity in Acute Organophosphate Intoxication
Jae Sung Lee, Jin Hui Paik, Sung Hyun Yun, Ji Hye Kim, Seung Baik Han, Jun Sig Kim, Hyun Min Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(1):31-35.   Published online June 30, 2013
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Acute organophosphate intoxication is important because of its high morbidity and mortality. The mortality is still high despite the use of atropine as specific antidotal therapy and oximes for reactivation of acetylcholinesterase. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by organophosphate can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizure, coma, and respiratory failure. Acute alteration in conscious state or a coma, which may occur following organophosphate intoxication, is an indication of severe intoxication and poorer prognosis. This acute decline in conscious state often reverses when the cholinergic crisis settles; however, it may be prolonged in some patients. We report on a case of a 60-year-old male who showed prolonged decline in conscious state due to of Central Nervous System (CNS) toxicity after a suicide attempt with organophosphate.
Effect of Seizure on Prognosis in Acute Endosulfan Intoxication
Byung-Gon Han, Jun-Ho Lee, Kyung-Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):77-82.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: In highly doses, endosulfan lowers the seizure threshold and elicits central nervous system stimulation, which can result in seizures, respiratory failure, and death. Management of seizure control is essential for survival and prognosis of intoxicated patients. This study assessed whether seizure time was an independent predictor mortality in patients with endosulfan poisoning. Methods: This retrospective study enrolled patients with endosulfan poisoning presenting to Masan Samsung Hospital and Gyeongsang National University Hospital from January 2003 to December 2008. The data were collected from clinical records and laboratory files. Using a multivariate logistic analysis, data on the total population was retrospectively analyzed for association with mortality. Results: Of the 24 patients with endosulfan poisoning, nineteen (79.1%) experienced seizure. The patients in the seizure group showed significantly lower Glasgow coma scale score, base excess, bicarbonate, and significant existence of mechanical ventilation, as compared to the non seizure group (n=5). Seizure, Glasgow coma scale score, systolic blood pressure, bicarbonate level, need for respiratory support, pulse rate, respiratory rate, pH, base excess, and seizure time were associated with mortality. The fatality rate of endosulfan poisoning was 54.1% with higher mortality among patients experiencing. Longer seizure time was associated with higher mortality. Conclusion: Seizure time can be a significant independent predictor of mortality in patients with acute endosulfan poisoning. Physicians should aggressively treat for seizure control in patients with acute endosulfan poisoning.
A Case of Intoxication of Ingested Formalin
Seon-Hee Baek, Kyung-Hwan Kim, Jun-Seok Park, Dong-Wun Shin, Jun-Young Roh, Kyoung-Mi Lee, Ah-Jin Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(1):38-40.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Formalin is a water-soluble, colorless, pungent, irritating and highly reactive gas. A 40% solution of formaldehyde in water, also known as formalin, is used as a disinfectant, antiseptic, deodorant, tissue fixative and embalming fluid. Ingestion can lead to immediate deleterious effects on almost all systems of the body including gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, cardiovsacular system and hepato-renal system, causing gastrointestinal hemorrhage, cardiovsacular collapse, unconsciousness or convulsions, severe metabolic acidosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We treated a 39-year-old woman who ingested 300 ml formalin in a suicidal attempt. Despite hemodialysis, death occurred after 23 h.
Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning
Mi-Jin Lee, Joon-Seok Park, Tai-Yong Hong, Sung-Soo Park, Yeon-Ho You
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(2):83-90.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are the most common source of human toxicity globally, causing high mortality and morbidity despite the availability of atropine as a specific antidote and oximes to reactivate acetylcholinesterase. The primary toxicity mechanism is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AchE), resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, and abnormal stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. Thus, the symptoms (muscarinic, nicotinic, and central nervous system) result from cholinergic overactivity because of AchE inhibition. OP can also cause rhabdomyolysis, pancreatitis, parotitis, and hepatitis. OP therapy includes decontamination, supportive therapy, and the use of specific antidotes such as atropine and oximes. However, there has been a paucity of controlled trials in humans. Here we evaluated the literature for advances in therapeutic strategies for acute OP poisoning over the last 10 years.
Epidemiology and Clinical Analysis of Poisoning of Glufosinate Herbicide - Multicenter Study -
Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):36-42.   Published online June 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: To assess the epidemiology and the clinical features of Glufosinate herbicide in Korea. Methods: Data was prospectively collected during 1 year since August 2005 from 38 hospital in Korea. We analyzed the epidemiologic characters and clinical manifestations of Glufosinate poisoning. In addition, the characteristics of patients with severe central nervous system toxicity were separately analyzed to find poor prognosis relating factors. Results: During study periods, there were 715 persons of poisoning of herbicides and insecticides. 6.3% (45 persons) of the agricultural chemicals poisoning had Glufosinate poisoning. There were 36 cases of suicide attempts and 7 cases of accidental exposure, The major of poisoning route was oral ingestion (44 cases). 28.9 % of the study patients had not toxic symptoms. The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal symptoms relating surfactant irritation. 67.7% of central nervous symptoms occurred lately. 10 persons showed severe central nervous system toxicity. 4 persons of them showed poor outcomes (1 death, 3 hopeless discharged). Complications of respiratory failure and renal failure related with poor outcome. Conclusion: Majority of patients ingested Glufosinate for suicide attempt. 22.2% of patients with Glufosinate poisoning showed delayed serious central nervous system toxicity. Early supportive care of altered mentality may prevent late respiratory complications and improve the outcomes.
A Case of anterograde amnesia with hippocampal lesions following glufosinate intoxication
Seung-Hwan Seol, Hyeon-Soo Park, Jung-Hwan Ahn, Hee-Young Park, Phil-Hyu Lee, Gi-Woon Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(1):61-64.   Published online June 30, 2006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Glufosinate ammonium (GLA), a phosphinic acid derivate of glutamate, is a broad-spectrum contact herbicide. It structurally resembles glutamate, a typical excitatory amino acid in the central nervous system. In korea, the ingestion of GLA for suicidal attempt or accidental event has increased. The neurological complication of GLA intoxication are characterized by loss of consciousness, convulsion, or memory impairment. But, the exact mechanism of GLA toxicity is yet unknown. This report is about a patient with GLA intoxication who showed anterograde amnesia with selective bilateral hip-pocampal lesions supported GLA intoxication with literature reviews supported.
Treatment of Ethylene Glycol Poisoning Patient Presented with Mental Change
Jin Hong Min, Jang Young Lee, Moon Gi Min, Sung Pil Chung, Seung Whan Kim, In Sool Yoo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(2):129-132.   Published online December 31, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Ethylene glycol poisoning can cause profound morbidity and is almost universally fatal if untreated. Central nervous system depression, pulmonary edema, and acute oligulic renal failure with crystalluria are among the most commonly encountered complication of ingestion. Ingestion of ethylene glycol may be an important contributor in patients with metabolic acidosis and subsequent renal failure. The diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning is based on nonspecific clinical symptoms and signs and indirect and direct laboratory measurement of ethylene glycol. As a result, diagnosis and treatment sometimes can be delayed. We describe 52-year-old man who visited to emergency department with mental change of unknown origin. The patient has high anion gap metabolic acidosis and renal failure due to ingestion of antifreeze that contained ethylene glycol. We used hemodialysis for elimination technique. The patient was discharged with minimal complication.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology