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Volume 5(1); 2007
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Characteristics and Prognostic Factors of Carbamate Poisoning in Korea
Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Gil-Joon Suh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and the prognostic factors of carbamate poisoned patients who visited emergency departments. Methods: From August 2005 to July 2006, we investigated the demographic feature, dose of exposure, time of exposure, alcohol intake, route of exposure, reason of exposure, site of exposure, pre-existing medical condition, time from exposure to emergency department (ED), transfer from other hospitals, vital sign at ED arrival, symptom or sign at ED arrival, and result of care of the patients who visited the ED of thirty-eight hospitals in Korea. According to the result of care, we divided the patients into two groups, the survival and the dead. To evaluated the prognostic factors, we calculated the odds ratio of each factor for the survival. Results: Among the sixty-eight patients, fifty-five patients (80.9%) were survival and thirteen patients (19.1%) were dead. The patients in the dead were older than the patients in the survival. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of the patients in the dead was lower than the GCS in the survival. The odds ratio of the GCS at ED arrival for the survival was 1.58 (95% CI; 1.23-2.05). Other factors showed no statistical significances. Conclusion: The GCS at emergency department arrival was the prognosis factor of the carbamate poisoned patients who visited emergency departments. If the carbamate poisoned patients showed altered mentalities, they should be provided intensive care, immediately.
Different Clinical Outcomes by Subgroups in Organophosphorus Poisoning
Duk-Hee Lee, Jin-Hee Jung, Koo-Young Jung, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):8-14.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: Organophosphorus insecticides tend to be regarded as a homogeneous single entity. We aimed to determine whether organophosphate poisoning differs by subgroups in clinical features and severity. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all patients with acute organophophorus poisoning from January 1998 to December 2006. We investigated clinical features, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), laboratory findings, QTc intervals, management, and outcomes. Results: A total of 109 patients were included. The dimethoxy group experienced significantly longer times than the diethoxy group for ventilation duration (0.6 day vs. 0.2 day, p=0.006), ICU duration (2.0 day vs. 0.8 day, p=0.037), and total admission duration (2.8 day vs. 0.9 day, p=0.008), except in cases of dichlorvos poisoning. Also, the GCS of the dimethoxy group (except with dichlorvos) was significantly lower than for the diethoxy group (dimethoxy, $11.2{pm}5.2$ vs. diethoxy, $13.8{pm}2.4$, p= 0.021). QTc intervals for the dimethoxy group (except with dichlorvos) tended to be somewhat greater than for the diethoxy group (dimethoxy, $452.9{pm}16.1;msec$ vs. diethoxy, $429.6{pm}40.9;msec$). There were 65 patients with dichlorvos ingestion, and 2 of these patients (3%) died. Conclusion: When compared to the diethoxy group, the dimethoxy group of organophosphates (with the exception of dichlorvos) were associated with poorer prognostic value for indicators such as GCS, QTc interval, requirement for intubation, ICU duration, and total admission duration. Within the dimethoxy group, patients with dichlorvos poisoning had relatively better prognoses than for the other dimethoxy group organophosphates studied.
Clinical Aspects of the Organochlorine Intoxicated Patients
Jun-Ho Cho, Bum-Jin Oh, Joo-Hyun Suh, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Hyung-Keun Roh, In-Cheol Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):15-20.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: To analyze the general characteristics and clinical aspects of the organochlorine intoxicated patients in Korea. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the organochlorine intoxicated patients visiting to the 38 emergency medical centers in Korea from the 1, Aug. 2005 to the 31, Jul. 2006. Results: There were 38 patients intoxicated by the organochlorine during the study periods. The mean age of patients was 55.1 years old. The mean amount of the organochlorine intoxicated is 246.1 mL. The most frequent place where the patients got and took the organochlorine was their home. Twenty eight patients(73.7%) intended to suicide. Nine patients out of 38 patients(23.7%) were died and they all intended to suicide. Conclusion: There were 38 patients intoxicated by the organochlorine during the study periods. The suicidal attempts and the number of the dead were higher in Korea than the developed countries.
Organophosphate-Pyrethroid Mixtures Poisoning
Dae-Young Hong, Kwang-Je Baek, Kyeong-Ryong Lee, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Jun-Sig Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):21-26.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: Owing to organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures are widely used, suicidal or unintentional poisoning is common. But there have been relatively few reports of poisoning. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the difference of the severity and toxicity between organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures poisoning and single organophosphate poisoning. Methods: From August 2005 to July 2006, 65 patients presented with organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures poisoning to emergency medical center. Date were gathered by report form it was drawn up. Results: 65 patients were enrolled in 28 hospitals and their mean age was $56.5{pm}16.2$ years old. The most common cause of poisoning was suicide, in 52 cases(80%). Chlorpyrifos-cypermethrin, malathion-esfenvalerate were the most frequent chemicals involved, and the mean ingestion amount was 135.4ml. The most common symptom of the patients was nausea/vomiting, in 16 patients. The average GCS score was 13. The mean ICU stay was $4.4{pm}5.2$ days, and mortality was 3.1%. Conclusion: The severity and toxicity of organophosphate-pyrethroid mixture poisoning were lower than that of single organophosphate poisoning.
Clinical Characteristics of Acute Pure Organophosphate Compounds Poisoning - 38 Multi-centers Survey in South Korea -
Mi-Jin Lee, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):27-35.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: Organophosphate (OP) compounds insecticides are the most commonly associated with serious human toxicity all over the world. The aim of this study was to identify sociocultural factors that contribute to high incidence of pure OP poisoning and prevent OP poisoning in order to reduce the factors responsible for deaths in South Korea. Methods: This is the 38 multi-centers survey and prospective study of pure OP poisoning by structural reporting system and hospital records from August 2005 to July 2006. 238 patients with acute pure OP poisoning were enrolled. We collected patient information regarding poisoning, clinical, and demographic features. Results: The mean age was $55.32{pm}17.3$ years old. The most frequent site of exposure was their own residence(85.7%). Frequent compounds involving pure OP poisoning were dichlorvos(22.7%), methidathion(8.4%), and phosphamidon(6.7%). Intentional poisoning was 77.9%. The most frequently route of exposure was ingestion(94.5%). The mean arrival time to hospital after poisoning was 12.7 hours and mean hospitalization duration was 12.9 days. 2-PAM was administered to 101 patients in mean doses of 6.3 g/day intravenously. Atropine was administered to 81 patients in mean doses of 74.6 mg/day (maximal 910 mg/day). The presence of lower level of GCS score, respiratory complications, hypotension, acute renal failure, and serious dysrhythmia was associated with serious and fatal poisoning. Overall final mortality in pure OP poisoning was 9.7%(23/238). Conclusion: This study highlights the problem of pure OP poisoning in South Korea as a basic national survey. Futhermore this might help the establishment of strict policies availability of OP and the statistics of OP poison exposure in South Korea.
Epidemiology and Clinical Analysis of Poisoning of Glufosinate Herbicide - Multicenter Study -
Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):36-42.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: To assess the epidemiology and the clinical features of Glufosinate herbicide in Korea. Methods: Data was prospectively collected during 1 year since August 2005 from 38 hospital in Korea. We analyzed the epidemiologic characters and clinical manifestations of Glufosinate poisoning. In addition, the characteristics of patients with severe central nervous system toxicity were separately analyzed to find poor prognosis relating factors. Results: During study periods, there were 715 persons of poisoning of herbicides and insecticides. 6.3% (45 persons) of the agricultural chemicals poisoning had Glufosinate poisoning. There were 36 cases of suicide attempts and 7 cases of accidental exposure, The major of poisoning route was oral ingestion (44 cases). 28.9 % of the study patients had not toxic symptoms. The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal symptoms relating surfactant irritation. 67.7% of central nervous symptoms occurred lately. 10 persons showed severe central nervous system toxicity. 4 persons of them showed poor outcomes (1 death, 3 hopeless discharged). Complications of respiratory failure and renal failure related with poor outcome. Conclusion: Majority of patients ingested Glufosinate for suicide attempt. 22.2% of patients with Glufosinate poisoning showed delayed serious central nervous system toxicity. Early supportive care of altered mentality may prevent late respiratory complications and improve the outcomes.
A Case of Acute Poisoning with Dry Ice
Soon-Young Hwang, Jin-Hee Jung, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):43-45.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Carbon dioxide is the fourth most abundant gas in the earth's atmosphere, and it is widely used in the chemical industry. Solid carbon dioxide is commonly known as dry ice. At low concentration, carbon dioxide appears to have little toxicological effect. At higher concentrations, however, it can produce an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmia, loss of consciousness, convulsion, and even death. Management of carbon dioxide poisoning requires the immediate removal of an individual from the toxic environment and administration of oxygen. It is important to know the concentration of carbon dioxide to which a patient has been exposed. We report a case of acute poisoning from solid carbon dioxide in a patient presenting with drowsiness and diminished mental capacity when she arrived in the emergency department. She recovered completely after administration of oxygen with conservative treatment.
Dimethoate Intoxication with Refractory Shock and Hyperglycemia
Jae-Eun Kim, Jin-Hee Jung, Hyun-A Bae, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):46-49.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Organophosphorus insecticides induce different clinical manifestations varying according to the different side groups attached to the phosphate, their rates of degradation, and their fat solubilities. In consequence of this variation, specific treatments are required for particular organophosphorus insecticides. We report a unusual case of intoxication with dimethyl organophosphorus insecticide in a 26-year-old woman. She manifested atypical and ultimately fatal symptoms including profound shock, refractory hyperglycemia, and hypothermia.
A Familial Case of Tetramine Intoxication from Neptunea
Chang-Won Lee, Jung-Keun Kwak, Kyung-Choon Park, Ji-Yeong Ryu, Ji-Young You, Gyu-Chong Cho
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):50-52.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Certain parts of shellfish contain poisonous substances and cause intoxication. Tetramine toxin is found in the salivary gland of Neptunea. Three family members were admitted to the hospital with chief complaints of dizziness and blurred vision, gait disturbance, and spasms of the lower extremities after ingesting Neptunea. Physical examination revealed sluggish pupil light reflexes, but laboratory studies were normal. Symptoms were completely resolved within 24 hours after injection of atropine. We report a case of three patients with dizziness and blurred vision, gait disturbance, and spasms of the lower extremities due to Neptunea tetramine toxin.
Nicotine Poisoning Using Nicotine Patches
You-Dong Sohn, Jae-Sung Lee, Gu-Hyun Kang, Jung-Tae Choi, Moo-Eob Ahn, Jeong-Youl Seo, Hee-Cheol Ahn
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):53-56.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Nicotine poisoning arising from the use of nicotine patches is rare. However, because nicotine patches are classified as an OTC drug, the risk of misuse or abuse is increasing. Nicotine poisoning using nicotine patches shows an unusual clinical presentation compared to that from oral ingestion of multiple doses of nicotine. We present a case of misused nicotine patches that cause a nicotine poisoning. A thirty-nine year-old healthy man visited the ER with complaints of an intermittent cramping abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting. Upon physical examination, there were no specific findings except increased bowel sounds, and the patient's initial laboratory findings were also unremarkable except for an increased bilirubin level. CT revealed a mild degree of fatty liver. The patient's symptoms did not improve any further with conservative management. During his ED stay, we meticulously took his history again, and we discovered that he had used nicotine patches for three days, six days before admission, and had misused the nicotine patches as NSAID patches. The patient's diagnosis of nicotine poisoning was confirmed by a urine cotinine level ten times the normal value. After a 12-hour stay in the ED, his symptoms disappeared without any specific management.
Treatment with the Taylor Cyanide Antidote Package after Cyanide Poisoning: Case Report
Beam-Gyu Cho, Han-Joo Choi, Yang-Soo Jang, Tae-Yang Shin, Kang-Hyun Lee, Sung-Oh Hwang, Hyun Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):57-60.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Cyanide has been well known from antiquity. Cyanide poisoning causes histotoxic hypoxia--inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase with disruption of the ability of cells to use oxygen. The mortality rate is 95% within 30 minutes. Acute cyanide poisoning is mostly the result of attempted suicide, and because of the high doses typically employed it usually is lethal within minutes. Also acute cyanide poisoning leads to a very poor prognosis because medical personnel can't detect cyanide intoxication and so many hospital haven't antidote. We report two cases of cyanide poisoning which responded well to treatment with the Taylor cyanide antidote package.
A Case of Trichloroethylene Poisoning
Jae-Cheon Jean, Sung-Won Jang, Seung-Joan Yang, Jae-Won Lee, Sang-Chan Jin, Myeong-Don Joo, Woo-Ik Choi
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):61-66.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an unsaturated chlorinated hydrocarbon in the form of a colorless, volatile liquid, which is used as an industrial organic solvent for spot removal and for metal degreasing. In general, the primary complications of TCE poisoning result from involvement of the central nervous and respiratory systems, including aspiration pneumonia. A case is reported of a 54-year-old man who presented in a comatose state after accidental ingestion of 100 ml of TCE, and who recovered after conservative treatment and mechanical ventilation. We discuss this case and present a literature review.
Prolonged Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Cardiac Arrest Patient with Aconitine Intoxication
In-Woo Hwang, Tae-O Jeong, Jae-Baek Lee, Youn-Ho Jin
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):67-70.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Aconitum is an extremely dangerous plant that contains various toxic diterpenoid alkaloids, primarily concentrated in the roots. We report a case of acute intoxication of a 60-year-old man admitted to our emergency department after ingestion of a large amount of homemade aconitine decoction. At presentation about one hour after intake, the patient was unconscious and electrocardiographic analysis showed a ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation. Several times defibrillation was applied and antiarrhythmic agents were administered, but the patient still exhibited a refractory ventricular fibrillation and failed to return to spontaneous circulation. Sustained cardiopulmonary resuscitation finally produced a pulsatile cardiac rhythm at two hours after intake. The patient was discharged from our hospital on day 8. The authors stress that clinicians must be aware of the possible occurrence of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia in cases of aconitine intoxication and be prepared to persist with prolonged CPR as necessary.
A Patient with Cellulitis from Intramuscular Glyphosate Injection
Yoon-Sung Kim, Taek-Gun Ohk, Myeung-Cheol Shin, Hyun-Young Choi, Joong-Bum Moon, Sung-Eun Kim, Jeong-Yeul Seo, Moo-Eob Ahn, Byung-Ryul Cho, Yang-Hoon Kim, Bong-Ki Lee, Myeung Kim, Jun-Hwi Cho
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):71-73.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Glyphosate is the active ingredient in widely used herbicides. It acts through inhibition of the shikimate metabolic pathway in plants. This pathway does not exist in mammals, however, so glyphosate is presumably less toxic to humans. Nevertheless, fatal cases of glyphosate poisoning in humans have still occurred. Cases of glyphosate poisoning reported in the previous literature were almost always caused by intentional ingestion. Therefore, intramuscular injection of glyphosate with suicidal intent has not been reported. We report a case of 43-year-old man with poisoning due to intramuscular injection of glyphosate herbicide. He was admitted to the emergency department with a chilling sensation, local hotness, swelling, and tenderness at the site of glyphosate injection. He was treated with intravenous antibiotics and analgesics for 10 days and was discharged without any other complication.
Acute Coronary Syndrome In Acute Carbamate Ingestion
Dai-Hai Choi
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):74-78.   Published online June 30, 2007
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The carbamates are a group of insecticides derived from carbamic acid, with a broad spectrum of uses as agricultural and household garden insecticides. Carbamate insecticides are reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. Their inhibitory action is mediated by reversible carbamylation of acetylcholine, as with the organophosphate insecticides. Carbamates are absorbed by the body through multiple routes, including inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Although poisoning can result from occupational exposure or accidental ingestion, in most cases there is suicidal intent. This is particularly true in developing countries, where the highest incidence of morbidity and mortality from this cause occurs. Cardiac complications often accompany poisoning by carbamate compounds, which may be serious and often fatal. The extent, frequency, and pathogenesis of cardiac toxicity from carbamate compounds has not been clearly defined. Possible mechanismsinclude sympathetic and parasymphatetic overactivity, hypoxemia, acidosis, electrolyte derangements, and a direct toxic effect of the compounds on the myocardium. Patients with carbamate poisoning should immediately be transferred to an intensive or coronary care unit where appropriate monitoring and resuscitative facilities are available. We here report a case of acute coronary syndrome resulting from acute carbamate ingestionthat resulted in a healthy discharge.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology