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JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

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Volume 3(2); 2005
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Appropriateness of Labelling Practice for Pesticides in Korea
Bum Jin Oh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Won Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Yoo Dong Shon, Hui Dong Kang, Kyoung Soo Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):71-78.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Purpose: The morbidity of pesticides are largely related with accidental ingestion in human. The four principal ideals of clarity, completeness, conformity and consistency of label are important to make a correct usage and prevent unnecessary health risk. The aim of this study is to evaluate the appropriateness of pesticides labelling practice in Korea. Methods: The photographic label images of pesticide products were gathered through visiting thirteen manufacturers that produce pesticide products in Korea. We scored labelling practice by guidelines of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 1995. Results: From August 2005 to November 2005, we gathered 1,296 label images of pesticide and $58.3{\%}$ (755/1,296) of images were scored by check lists for reviewing label content. The average score of four check list categories was $71.9{pm}2.2$. Each categorical score were $91.7{pm}0.9$ for the information appearing on the label, $31.3{pm}0.0$ for safety precaution, $77.7{pm}2.0$ for instructions for use, $87.0{pm}8.7$ for general configurations. In safety precaution, the sentence of keeping locked up the product and two mandatory safety pictograms were missed in all label images. In general configurations category, there was score difference in product package types between bottle and bag container ($85.1{pm}9.0$ vs. $90.3{pm}7.2$, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Although there was no comparable previous data, the score of safety precaution was lowest than other categories because the two mandatory safety pictograms and locked up warning sentence were missed. In general configurations, the colour contrast was more inappropriate in the labels on bottle than bag container.
The Clinical Aspects of Wild Plant Poisoning
Taek-Gun Ok, Chan-Woo Park, Jun-Hwi Cho, Seung-Whan Cheon, Seung-Young Lee, Sung-Eun Kim, Ki-Hoon Choi, Ji-Hoon Bae, Jeong-Yeul Seo, Hee-Cheol Ahn, Moo-Eob Ahn, Byung-Ryul Cho, Yong-Hoon Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):79-85.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Purpose: With the recent boom in 'eating healthy', many adults are interested in dieting to prevent future diseases. However only well trained experts can distinguish between what are edible vegetables and herbs from their poisonous look-alikes. In cases where a patient unknowingly ingests a poisonous herb, is caught off guard by the poisonous side effects that occur because of their lack of knowledge of what they have ingested. This paper will focus on the need to educate the public about the risks involved with ingesting wild vegetables and herbs and study the emergency diagnosis and treatment of poisoned patients that enter the emergency room. Method: This study was done in the spring of 2004 (from March to May) in the Kangwon Young-Seo districts of Korea. 15 subjects used in this study, entered the emergency room showing signs of toxic symptoms. Data was collected by examining subject's records. Additional data was collected by collaborating with physicians in the hospital that diagnosed and treated the subjects. Identifying the poisonous vegetable or herb is the first step to proper diagnosis and treatment. Subjects admitted to the emergency room, underwent a battery of tests: laboratory examination, ECG, radiological exam and etc. Results: The demographics of the study encompassed subjects with the average age of $50{pm}19$ years old. There were 10 men and 5 women. Common symptoms of this study included; gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain and so on. In the case of Caltha palustris ingestion, additional symptoms were present; bradycardia and hypotension which lasted for a long time. While cases that ingested Scopolia parviflora had little effect on vital signs but manic episodes lasted for about three days. Veratrum patulum ingestion showed signs of bradycardia and hypotension but contrary to Caltha palustris recovery was shorten by treating with dopamine. However, dizziness, headache and paresthesia of the extremities continued for a long time. Finally Sium ninsi ingestion showed visual disturbance, paresthesia of the extremities, dizziness as their initial symptoms. Conclusion: The risks involved with ingesting wild plants without the proper knowledge can lead to serious side effects and steps need to be taken to educate the public. In addition, all emergency physicians need to have a working knowledge of the symptoms and signs associated with ingesting toxic wild plants and need to treat accordingly.
Survival Curve Analysis in Patients with Severe Organophosphate Poisoning
Mi-Jin Lee, Kyu-Nam Park, Won-Jae Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):86-92.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Purpose: The main cause of death due to acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning is believed acute respiratory failure caused by cholinergic reactions. Recently, advances in respiratory and intensive care make it possible to maintain the respiratory function of patients with OP poisoning, but the mortality rates remain high. The present study clarified the hemodynamics of patients with acute lethal OP poisoning. The purpose of this study was to analyse the outcomes and predictors of mortality in patients with acute OP poisoning requiring intensive care. Methods: We reviewed medical and intensive care records of patients with acute OP poisoning admitted to emergency department and ICU between March 1998 and Aug 2005. We collected patient information regarding poisoning, clinical, and demographic features. Results: During the study period, 67 subjects treated with intensive care and ventilator management in addition to gastric decontamination standard therapy with atropine and 2-PAM. Of 67 patients, 13 died. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated a steep decline in the cumulative survival to $86.6\%$ during the first week. Mean arterial pressure < 60 mmHg within the first 24 hours was recognized as a poor prognostic indicators among mechanical ventilated patients. Conclusion: Most OP poisoning-related deaths occurred within the first week of poisoning. Mean arterial pressure lower than 60 mmHg might be the best predictor of poor outcome. We speculated that the refractory hypotension is the leading cause of death in patients with lethal OP poisoning that receiving mechanical ventilation and maximal supportive care.
Resuscitation Outcomes and Clinical Characteristics of Out-of-Hospital Drug Induced Cardiac Arrest
Yun Kwon Kim, Hyun Kim, Ho Kyong Won, Kwon Il Lee, Sung Bum Oh, Joong Bum Moon, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):93-98.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Purpose: This study was to investigate the resuscitation outcomes and the clinical characteristics of non-traumatic drug-induced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by analyzing data from a single institution's registry. Method: We conducted a retrospective study of 795 patients who came to the emergency department with non-traumatic drug-induced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during the period $1991{~}2004$. Only patients over 18 years of age were included. Clinical characteristics. variables associated with cardiac arrest, and data during resuscitation were obtained from our cardiac arrest database. Patients were divided into two groups: drug-induced cardiac arrest (drug group, n=33), and non drug-induced cardiac arrest (non-drug group, n=762). Results: Spontaneous circulation was restored in 23 ($72{\%}$) patients in the drug group and in 314 ($45{\%}$) patients in the non-drug group ($x^2=0.020$). The patients who discharged alive number were 46 ($6{\%}$) in the non-drug group and 0 ($0{\%}$) in the drug group ($x^2=0.005$). The witnessed arrest, the epinephrine doses, and total defibrillation energy were not different between two groups. Conclusion: The return of spontaneous circulation rate was higher in the drug group than the non-drug group. However the drug group was lower survival discharge rate than in the non-drug group.
A Case Report of Liquid-Lye (NaOH) Ingestion Complicated with Gastroesophageal Perforation
Hee-Bum Yang, Young-Mo Yang, Sung-Youp Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):99-102.   Published online December 31, 2005
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The caustic drugs are classified into acid and alkali. Oral intake of these drugs cause histological injuries to the surfaces of oral cavity, laryngopharynx, and esophagus. Caustic drugs such as detergents and brilliants are easily contacted at homes. However, until now, the epidemiology and the clinical statistics of caustic drug ingestion in Korea were not carried out. This is a case report of sodium hydroxide - lye, a caustic drug more toxic than the others - ingestion with complication of gastroesophageal perforation, rapidly progressed mediastinitis and prompt death in the course of treatment.
A Case of Acute Glufosinate Ammonium ($BASTA^{(R)}$) Intoxication Associated with Various Neurological Abnormalities
Jin Hui Paik, Jun Sig Kim, Hyeon Gyu Yi, Hyun Joo Park, Choong-Kun Ha, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):103-106.   Published online December 31, 2005
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BASTA is an herbicide which contains glufosinate ammonium as a main component with an anionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene alkylether sulfate, and nonselectively inhibits glutamine synthetase. It became a wildly used herbicide in Korea and its intoxication is now increasing. A 42-year old woman ingested about 300ml of BASTA in a suicide attempt. She showed unconsciousness and respiratory distress in the beginning, and later developed multiple generalized convulsions, low blood pressure, fever and diabetes insipidus. Although she became alert 12 days after the ingestion, she showed retrograde amnesia for a period of about recent 10 years. A neuropsychological test on day 22 revealed frontal lobe dysfunction, visual memory disturbance and slight decrease in visuospatial function. All these neurological abnormalities that might occur due to glufosinate ammonium were almost improved in the follow-up test performed a month later.
A Case of Successful Treatment in Paraquat Intoxication Casued by Subcutaneous Injection
Hyo Wook GiI, Jong Oh Yang, Eun Young Lee, Sae Yong Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):107-109.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Paraqaut, a widely used herbicide, is extremely toxic, causing multiple organ failure in human. Most of paraquat intoxications happen through oral administration. But there is no clinical data for parenteral paraquat intoxication. A 35-year-old male injected paraquat solution on his forearm. He visited emergency room within 10 minutes and was treated with tourniquet, incision, washing and suction. After eight days, the patient was discharged without respiratory symptoms and complications. In treatment of parenteral paraquat intoxication, first aid was very important and the treatment should include tourniquet, incision, washing and suction in order to delay absorptions.
A Case of Acute Intoxication with Glyphosate and Oxyfluorfen Containing Powder Herbicide ($Daejangun^{(R)}$)
Seung Hee Lee, Kum Ho Yi, Sung-Soo Yoo, Heung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):110-113.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Glyphosate containing herbicides are an alternative to paraquat and have been widely used with increasing frequency in suicide attempts throughout Asia. It is an organophosphorus compound that is not a cholinesterase inhibitor. Daejangun powder consists of glyphosate ammonium, surfactant and another herbicide, oxyfluorfen. A 60-year-old man ingested about 300 g of Daejangun powder with 500 ml of water in a suicide attempt. He was brought to emergency room 6 hours after the ingestion and showed severe metabolic acidosis (pH 6.75), marked leukocytosis (WBC 35,800/$mm^3$), hypoglycemia (glucose 13 mg/dL) and increased liver enzymes (AST/ALT 1,683/418 IU/L). Later he developed aspiration pneumonia, acute renal failure and hyperchloremic acidosis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy which performed 5 days after the ingestion revealed corrosive injuries (grade 1) in both esophagus and stomach. However, intensive treatment with supportive measures improved the abnormal findings almost completely 4 weeks after the ingestion.
Mass Poisoning with Veratrum Grandiflonum
Hyung-Min Lee, Jun-Seok Park, Kwang-Hyun Cho
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):114-118.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Ingestion of plant material rarely manifest in clinical intoxication. This is due to the relatively low toxicity of most plants in Korea. But, veratrum is an important plant on account of its highly toxic alkaloids. Five cases of Veratrum grandiflonum mass poisoning are described. Clinical symptoms occurred quickly, within 30 min. Vomiting, a fall in blood pressure and bradycardia was observed. Treatments in the emergency department included gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and administration of atropine and dopamine for bradycardia and hypotension. Although one of them experienced profound hypotension, bradycardia and mental change, the outcomes were favorable in all cases, producing a complete cure without any sequellae at discharge.
A Case of Hair Neutralizer Induced Non-oliguric Acute Renal Failure
Ah Jin Kim, Kyung Hwan Kim, Jun Seok Park, Dong Wun Shin
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):119-121.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Sodium bromate or potassium bromate has been used as hair cold neutralizer. Sodium bromate intoxications occurred in children incidentally early days of marketing, but recently in adult suicidally. This chemical intoxication result in renal failure, ototoxicity, neurotoxicity, hemolytic anemia and so on. We experienced a 39-year-old woman of hairdresser with non-oliguric acute renal failure after ingestion hair neutralizer 500 ml. She received hemodialysis 3 times and discharged without complication on 8th admission days.
The Fatal Paraquat Poisoning Through Skin Abrasion -Case Report-
Sung-Eun Kim, Jun-Hwi Cho, Seung-Whan Cheon, Seung-Young Lee, Ki-Hoon Choi, Ji-Hoon Bae, Jeong-Yeul Seo, Hee-Cheol Ahn, Moo-Eob Ahn, Taek-Gun Ok, Chan-Woo Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):122-125.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Paraquat, is a widely used for its great effect as a herbicide. But the mortality rate by paraquat intoxication is known to be very high. It is thought to act by changing form to superoxide and peroxide free radical. Almost paraquat intoxication is through ingestion. A few intoxication of paraquat is through skin absorption. But there was no known death case through skin absorption. We experienced a case of a expired patient by paraquat intoxication through skin abrasion and scratching wound. A 75-year-old man was visited emergency room after motorcycle accident during transporting paraquat. He has multiple abrasion and scratching wound on extremities, and pelvic bone fracture. There was no evidence of ingestion of paraquat. But serum/urine gramoxone level was all positive. In spite of wound irrigation and hemoperfusion, his condition was been gone form bed to worse. 2 days after, multiple organ failure and the respiratory arrest were developed and he was expired. Paraquat intoxication through skin wound is extremely dangerous and death by that could possibly happen
A Case of Hemoperfusion and L-Carnitine Management in Valproic Acid Overdose
Jin Hee Jung, Gi Beom Kim, Ki Ok Ahn, Eun Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):126-129.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Valproic acid (VPA) is used in the management of a variety of conditions including simple and complex absence seizure disorder. bipolar disorder, and migraine prophylaxis. Clinical manifestation of VPA overdose vary in severity from mild confusion and lethargy to severe coma and death. The treatment of VPA toxicity is mainly supportive. There is no specific antidote, nor are there specific guidelines for the management of VPA intoxication. Anecdotal reports describe the efficacy of naloxone and L-carnitine, but the data are insufficient to make strong conclusions. Various techniques of extracoporeal therapy for the management of VPA toxicity have been described, but none has prevailed as standard therapy. We report a patient with VPA overdose who was successfully treated with hemoperfusion with activated charcoal and L-carnitine. VPA levels of the patient was more than 1,000 ${mu}g$/ml and was normalized after 3 times hemoperfusion. The patient was injected with L-carnitine by maximum 600 mg/kg/day for 5days without complications.
A Case of Cardiac Arrest Due to Severe Lithium Intoxication - Difficult Diagnosis -
Jung Hwan Ahn, Sang Cheon Choi, Sang Kyu Yoon, Yoon Seok Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):130-134.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Lithium is mainly prescribed for manic and depressive disorder, also frequently prescribed for the other diseases such as migraine, cluster headache, alcoholism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. An acute lithium intoxication occurs in cases of patients ingesting large amount lithium at a time, a chronic lithium intoxication occurs in patients on chronic lithium therapy. Acute or chronic lithium poisoning occurs frequently in case of patients on chronic lithium therapy ingesting larger dose than prescribed. Manifestations of lithium poisoning are various. It is possible nervous, cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems to be involved. Due to intracellular high concentration, mortality rate is high in acute lithium intoxication patients on chronic lithium therapy. We report a case of acutely intoxicated 40-year-old male on chronic lithium therapy. His chief complaints were deterioration and high fever. On his arrival to an emergency department, he was in cardiac arrest. He restored return of spontaneous circultion (ROSC) 5 minutes later after cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation (CPCR) and referred to department of internal medicine for hemodialysis. Vigorous treatment was given to the patient, but he was expired at 4th hospital day.
A Case of Amisulpride Induced QT Prolongation
Choung Ah Lee, Hyeon Soo Park, Young Gi Min, Gi Woon Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):135-138.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Amisulpride is a newly developed atypical antipsychotic agent effective in treating the positive and negative symptom of schizophrenia. Over-dose of amisulpride can cause hypocalcemia and thus may lead to QT prolongation. We report a case of hypocalcemia and QT prolongation. The QT prolongation was normalized after calcium supplement.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology