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Volume 16(2); December 2018
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Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio as A Predictor of Aspiration Pneumonia in Drug Intoxication Patients
Jeong Beom Lee, Sun Hwa Lee, Seong Jong Yun, Seokyong Ryu, Seung Woon Choi, Hye Jin Kim, Tae Kyung Kang, Sung Chan Oh, Suk Jin Cho, Beom Sok Seo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):61-67.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.61
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Purpose: To evaluate the association between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and occurrence of aspiration pneumonia in drug intoxication (DI) patients in the emergency department (ED) and to evaluate the relationship between NLR and length of hospital admission/intensive care unit (ICU) admission Methods: A total of 466 patients diagnosed with DI in the ED from January 2016 to December 2017 were included in the analysis. The clinical and laboratory results, including NLR, were evaluated as variables. NLR was calculated as the absolute neutrophil count/absolute lymphocyte count. To evaluate the prognosis of DI, data on the development of aspiration pneumonia were obtained. Also, we evaluated the relationship between NLR and length of hospital admission and between NLR and length of ICU admission. Statistically, multivariate logistic regression analyses, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and Pearson's correlation (${ ho}$) were performed. Results: Among the 466 DI patients, 86 (18.5%) developed aspiration pneumonia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed NLR as an independent factor in predicting aspiration pneumonia (odds ratio, 1.7; p=0.001). NLR showed excellent predictive performance for aspiration pneumonia (areas under the ROC curves, 0.815; cut-off value, 3.47; p<0.001) with a sensitivity of 86.0% and a specificity of 72.6%. No correlations between NLR and length of hospital admission (${ ho}=0.195$) and between NLR and length of ICU admission (${ ho}=0.092$) were observed. Conclusion: The NLR is a simple and effective marker for predicting the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia in DI patients. Emergency physicians should be alert for aspiration pneumonia in DI patients with high NLR value (>3.47).
Evaluation of Cut-off Values in Acute Acetaminophen Intoxication Following the Revised Guideline of the United Kingdom
Sung Jin Park, Kyungman Cha, Byung Hak So, Hyung Min Kim, Won Jung Jeoung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):68-74.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.68
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Purpose: In 2012, a revised guideline for acute acetaminophen overdose was proposed in the UK, recommending that the treatment threshold should be lowered to 100 mcg/ml at 4 hours after ingestion without risk stratification of hepatotoxicity. However, the poison centers in some developing countries do not have laboratory resources to provide serum drug levels in time. The primary aim of the study is to evaluate the cut-off value of reported dose per kilogram to determine when N-acetylcysteine treatment is warranted under the revised guideline. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from the toxicology registry of an urban emergency medical center between 1st January 2010 and 30th June 2017. Inclusion criteria were single acute overdose of more than 75 mg/kg in 15 hours from ingestion and over 14 years of age. Subgroups were created by 25 mg/kg increments of reported dose, then sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated for the cut-off values of 100 mg/kg, 125 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg and 175 mg/kg for toxic serum level over '100-treatment line'. Results: A total of 99 patients were enrolled in the study; 24 patients showed toxic serum levels (24.2%). Zero of 17 patients with an ingestion dose under 100 mg/kg showed toxic level (0%), and 0 of 15 under 125 mg/kg (0%), 2 of 14 under 150 mg/kg (14.3%), and 4 of 12 under 175 mg/kg (33.3%) had toxic levels. The higher the ingested dose per kilogram of weight, the higher the frequency of the toxic serum concentration on the first test (${chi}^2$ test for trend, ${chi}^2=22.66$, p-value<0.001) and the sensitivity of each value was 100%, 100%, 92% and 76%. Conclusion: In acute single acetaminophen intoxication, the ingestion dose of 100 mg/kg of weight will be useful in determining the need for the N-acetylcysteine antidote in the indigent laboratory environment.
Classify the Acute Drug Intoxication Patients with Poisoning Severity Score(PSS) and Calculate the Optimal Cutoff Value of PSS, PSSsum to Predict Poor Prognosis
Hyun Woo Park, Ha Young Park, Han Byeol Kim, Keon Woo Park, Sang Hun Lee, Hyun Wook Lee, Je Won Lee, Tae Sik Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):75-85.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.75
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Purpose: This study examined the Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) from acute poisoning patients, to determine the relationships among the PSS, PSSsum, the primary outcome (prolonged stay at the ER over 24 hours, general ward and ICU admission and the application of intubation and mechanical ventilator, and the administration of inotropes). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted through the EMR for 15 months. The PSS grade was classified according to the evidence of symptoms and signs. The differences in the primary outcomes between the PSS of when a single organ was damaged, and the PSS, PSSsum combined with the grade of when multiple organs were damaged, were studied. The cutoff value was calculated using the receiving operating characteristics (ROC) curve. Results: Of the 284 patients; 85 (29.9%) were men with a mean age of 48.8 years, and their average arrival time to the ER was $4.4{pm}6.7;hours$. The most frequently used drug was hypnotics. The number of patients with PSS grade 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 17, 129, 122, 24, and one, respectively. No ICU admissions, application of intubation and mechanical ventilators, administration of inotropes were observed among the patients with PSS grades 0 and 1 but only on patients with PSS grades 2 to 4. At PSS, when separating the patients according to the number of damaged organs, 17 had no symptoms, 133 had one organ damaged, 75 had two organs damaged, 36 had three organs damaged, and 23 had four organs damaged. Significant differences were observed between increasing number of damaged organs and the primary outcome. Conclusion: Among the acute poisoning patients, the PSS was higher in severity when the grade was higher. The number of damaged organs and the primary outcome showed meaningful statistical differences. This study confirmed that when the patients' PSS>2 and PSSsum>5, the frequency of ICU admission was higher, and they were considered to be severe with an increased prescription risk of application of intubation and mechanical ventilator, and the administration of inotropes.
Extracorporeal Life Support in Acute Poisoning
Si Jin Lee, Gap Su Han, Eui Jung Lee, Do Hyun Kim, Kyoung Yae Park, Ji Young Lee, Su Jin Kim, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):86-92.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.86
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Purpose: Cardiovascular or respiratory complications of acute intoxication are the most common causes of mortality. Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) or specific antidotes help manage these cardiac or respiratory complications in acute intoxication. On the other hand, some cases do not respond to ACLS or antidotes and they require some special treatment, such as extracorporeal life support (ECLS). ECLS will provide the chance of recovery from acute intoxication. This study examined the optimal timing of ECLS in acute intoxication cases. Methods: This paper is a brief report of a case series about ECLS in acute poisoning. The cases of ECLS were reviewed and the effects of ECLS on the blood pressure and serum lactate level of the patients were analyzed. Results: A total of four cases were reviewed; three of them were antihypertensive agent-induced shock, and one was respiratory failure after the inhalation of acid. The time range of ECLS application was 4.8-23.5 hours after toxic exposure. The causes of ECLS implementation were one for recurrent cardiac arrest, two for shock that did not respond to ACLS, and one for respiratory failure that did not respond to mechanical ventilator support. Three patients showed an improvement in blood pressure and serum lactate level and were discharged alive. In case 1, ECLS was stared at 23.5 hours post toxic exposure; the patient died due to refractory shock and multiple organ failure. Conclusion: The specific management of ECLS should be considered when a patient with acute intoxication does not recovery from shock or respiratory failure despite ACLS, antidote therapies, or mechanical ventilator support. ECLS improved the hemodynamic and ventilator condition in complicated poisoned patients. The early application of ECLS may improve the tissue perfusion state and outcomes of these patients before the toxic damage becomes irreversible.
Self-poisoning as a Target Group for Prevention of Suicide
Moon Hwan Kwak, Hyun Young Kang, Si Jin Lee, Kap Su Han, Su Jin Kim, Eu Jung Lee, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):93-101.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.93
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Purpose: The Korean government has tried to decrease the suicide death rate over the last decade. Suicide attempts, particularly non-fatal attempts, are the most powerful known risk factor for a completed suicide. An analysis of suicide attempt methods will help establish the effective preventive action of suicide. Fit prevention according to the method of suicide attempt may decrease the incidence of suicide death. Self-poisoning is suggested as a major method of both suicide attempts and suicide death. The aim of this study was to determine if a self-poisoning patient is a suitable target for the prevention of the suicide. Methods: This was retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort, which included patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) after a self-harm or suicide attempt from Jan 2013 to Dec 2017. The proportion of methods in suicide attempts, psychological consultation, and fatality according to the suicide attempt method were analyzed. The types of poison were also analyzed. Results: Poisoning was the most common method of suicide attempts (52.1%). The rate of psychological consultations were 18.8% for all patients and 29.1% for poison patients (p<0.001). The rate of mortality in poisoning was 0.6%. Psychological consultation was performed more frequently in admission cases than discharged cases. The most common materials of poisons was psychological medicines and sedatives that had been prescribed at clinics or hospital. Conclusion: Self-poisoning is a major method of suicide attempt with a high rate of psychiatric consultation, low mortality rate, versus others methods. The prevention of suicide death for suicide attempts may focus on self-poisoning, which is the major method of suicide attempts. A suitable aftercare program for self-poisoning may be an effective method for preventing suicide if an early diagnosis and management of psychiatric disorders through psychiatric consultation can be made, and early connection to social prevention program for non-fatal patients are possible.
Association between Smoking and Delayed Neuropsychological Sequelae in Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Hak Myeon Kim, Sung Woo Choi, Sang Un Nah, Hyo Jeong Choi, Hoon Lim, Gi Woon Kim, Sang Soo Han, Young Hwan Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):102-107.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.102
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Purpose: This study examined the association between smoking and delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) in acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: Patients admitted to the medical center emergency department from March 2016 to March 2017 because of CO poisoning were examined retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups: DNS and Non-DNS group. Multiple factors were analyzed to explain DNS, which was assessed by motor disturbances, cognitive impairment, dysphagia, Parkinson-like syndromes, epilepsy, and emotional lability in CO poisoning. Results: A total of 120 patients were included. The factors related to DNS were smoking (pack-years) (p=0.002) and initial carbon monoxide-hemoglobin level (p=0.015). On the other hand, after multivariate logistic regression analysis, smoking (Odds ratio 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13; p=0.004) was the only factor associated with DNS. Conclusion: Smoking is a very reliable factor for predicting the occurrence of DNS. A history of smoking in patients who suffer from CO intoxication is important. If a patient smokes, treatment should be started actively and as soon as possible.
The Effect of Glehnia Littoralis on Alpha-amanitin Induced Hepatotoxicity in a Murine Model
Chang Yeon Ryu, Kyung Hoon Sun, Ran Hong, Yongjin Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):108-115.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.108
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Purpose: Glehnia littoralis has been reported to have several pharmacological properties but no in vivo reports describing the protective effects of this plant on${alpha}$-amanitin-induced hepatotoxicity have been published. ${alpha}$-Amanitin is a peptide found in several mushroom species that accounts for the majority of severe mushroom poisonings leading to severe hepatonecrosis. In our previous in vitro study, we found that ${alpha}$-amanitin induced oxidative stress, which may contribute to its severe hepatotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Glehnia littoralis acetate extract (GLEA) has protective antioxidant effects on ${alpha}$-amanitin-induced hepatotoxicity in a murine model. Methods: Swiss mice (n=40 in all groups) were divided into four groups (n=10/group). Three hours after giving ${alpha}$-amanitin (0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) to the mice, they were administered silibinin (50 mg/kg/d, i.p.) or Glehnia littoralis ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/kg/d, oral) therapies once a day for 3 days. After 72 hours of treatment, each subject was killed, cardiac blood was aspirated for hepatic aminotransferase measurement, and liver specimens were harvested to evaluate the extent of hepatonecrosis. The degree of hepatonecrosis was assessed by a pathologist blinded to the treatment group and divided into 4 categories according to the grade of hepatonecrosis. Results: GLEA significantly improved the beneficial functional parameters in ${alpha}$-amanitin-induced hepatotoxicity. In the histopathological evaluation, the toxicity that was generated with ${alpha}$-amanitin was significantly reduced by GLEA, showing a possible hepatoprotective effect. Conclusion: In this murine model, Glehnia littoralis was effective in limiting hepatic injury after ${alpha}$-amanitin poisoning. Increases of aminotransferases and degrees of hepatonecrosis were attenuated by this antidotal therapy.
Unintentional Pharmaceutical Poisoning in the Emergency Department
Hyo Rim Jo, Choung Ah Lee, Ju Ok Park, Bo Na Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):116-123.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.116
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Purpose: The social environment of easy access to medicines and arbitrary personal decisions leading to overdose aggravate unintentional medicine poisoning. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of patients who visited emergency departments with unintentional medicine poisoning and reasons for poisoning based on age group. Methods: We retrospectively collected patients who experienced unintentional medicine poisoning based on data from the national injury surveillance system between 2013 and 2016. Subjects were classified into three groups based on age (0-14 years, 15-64 years, and ${geq}65;years$). We identified sex, insurance, time of poisoning, place, alcohol co-ingestion, hospitalization, death, and reason for poisoning in each age group. Results: A total of 27,472 patients visited an emergency department with poisoning during the study period; 1,958 patients who experienced unintentional poisoning were enrolled in this study. Respiratory medicine was the most frequent medicine in those younger than 15 years of age, and sedatives and antipsychotic drugs were the most common in patients older than 15 years of age. In total, 35.1% of patients older than 65 years were hospitalized. The most common reasons for poisoning were careless storage of medicine in those younger than 15 years of age and overdose due to arbitrary decisions in those older than 15 years of age. Conclusion: Unintentional medicine poisoning has distinct characteristics based on age group, and strategies to prevent poisoning should be approached differently based on age.
Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Severity of Glyphosate and Glufosinate Herbicide Poisoning Patients
Hyung Sun Joo, Tae Ho Yoo, Soo Hyung Cho
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):124-130.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.124
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Purpose: The number of glyphosate and glufosinate intoxication cases are increasing in Korea. This study was undertaken is to compare the clinical manifestations of poisoning by these two herbicides and to document severities and clinical outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated cases of glyphosate or glufosinate intoxication among patients that visited our emergency department between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2017. Incidences of intoxications were analyzed over this five year period, and underlying diseases, transportation, mental state, shock occurrence, inotropics, gastric lavage, charcoal administration, intubation and ventilator therapy, and hemodialysis were investigated. In addition, we included transfer to the intensive care unit, incidences of pneumonia and of other complications, death, and hopeless discharge. Results: There were 119 cases of glyphosate intoxication and 42 of glufosinate intoxication. Levels of consciousness were lower for glufosinate and vasopressor usage was higher due to a high shock rate (p=0.019). In addition, many patients were referred to the ICU for intubation and ventilation. The incidences of pneumonia and of other complications were significantly higher for glufosinate. Conclusion: Overall glufosinate intoxication was found to be more severe than glyphosate intoxication as determined by complication and ICU admission rates.
Antidotes Stocking and Delivery for Acute Poisoning Patients at 20 Emergency Departments in Korea 2015-2017
Seungmin Lee, Han Deok Youn, Hanseok Chang, Sinae Won, Kyung Hwan Kim, Bum Jin Oh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):131-140.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.131
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Purpose: The National Emergency Medical Center has been running a project for the storage and delivery of antidotes for acute poisoning patients of the Department of Health and Welfare, Korea. This study analyzed the results of this project over the past two years. Methods: The requests received by the National Emergency Medical Center and the data on the delivery process were analyzed. Results: This study analyzed a total of 121 patients with acute poisoning, who were requested to receive an antidote reserved at 20 key hospitals in 2015-2017, and whose age was $52.3{pm}23.5;years$; old; 54 were women. Intentional poisoning were 58.7%, and the home was the most common place of exposure (66.9%). The toxic substances were chemicals (32.2%), pesticides (27.3%), medicines (24.8%), and snake venom (4.1%). The patient's poison severity score was $2.4{pm}0.7$ (median 3) indicating moderate-to-severe toxicity. Antidote administration was the cases treated in key hospitals 67.8% (82/121), in which transferred patients accounted for 57.3% (47/82). After receiving an antidote request from a hospital other than the key hospitals, the median was 75.5 minutes (range 10 to 242 minutes) until the antidote reached the patient, and an average of 81.5 minutes was required. The results of emergency care were intensive care unit (70.3%), general wards (13.2%), death (10.7%), and discharge from emergency department (5.0%). Conclusion: This study showed that the characteristics of acute poisoning patients treated with an antidote were different from previous reports of poisoned patients in the emergency department, and basic data on the time required for delivery from key hospitals was different.
Pharmaceutical Drug Poisoning after Deregulation of Over the Counter Drug Sales: Emergency Department Based In-depth Injury Surveillance
Sung Ho Kim, Hyunjong Kim, Ji Sook Lee, Junseok Park, Kyung Hwan Kim, Dong Wun Shin, Hoon Kim, Joon Min Park, Woochan Jeon
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):141-148.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.141
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Purpose: The Korean government approved selected nonprescription drugs (Over-The-Counter drug; OTC drug) to be distributed in convenience stores from 15. Nov. 2012. This study examined the changes in the incidence and the clinical outcome of acute pharmaceutical drug poisoning after the deregulation of OTC drug sales. Methods: This study analyzed the data of Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Injury Surveillance (EDIIS), Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, from 2011 to 2014. The following items were examined: age, gender, intention, alcohol association, pharmaceutical drugs resulting acute poisoning, the clinical outcomes in emergency department, and the admission rate of intensive care unit (ICU). This is a retrospective cross section observational study. Results: A total of 10,162 patients were subject to pharmaceutical drug poisoning. Acute poisoning by acetaminophen and other drugs were 1,015 (10.0%) and 9,147 (90.0%) patients, respectively. After the deregulation of OTC drug sales, acute poisoning by other drugs increased from 4,385 to 4,762 patients but acute poisoning by acetaminophen decreased from 538 to 477 patients (p<0.05). The rate of admission of acetaminophen poisoning increased from 36.1% (194/538) to 46.8% (223/477). The admission rate to the ICU by acetaminophen poisoning increased from 4.6% (25/538) to 11.3% (54/477) after the deregulation of OTC drug sales (p<0.05). Conclusion: Since the deregulation of OTC drugs sales, pharmaceutical drug poisoning has increased but acetaminophen poisoning has decreased. The rate of hospitalization and ICU admission by pharmaceutical drug poisoning with or without acetaminophen has also increased.
Usefulness of Predictors for Hepatotoxicity in Acetaminophen Poisoning Patient
Eun Young Kim, Sung Phil Chung, Dong Ryul Ko, Tae Young Kong, Je Sung You, Min Hong Choa, Min Joung Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):149-156.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.149
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether hepatotoxicity could be predicted early using biochemical markers in patients with acetaminophen (AAP) poisoning and to assess the usefulness of predictive factors for acute liver injury or hepatotoxicity. Methods: This study was a retrospective observational study involving a medical records review. The participants were patients who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) with AAP overdose at two hospitals over a 10-year period. Demographic data, age, time from ingestion to visit, initial AAP level, initial hepatic aminotransferases, and initial prothrombin time were recorded. Acute liver injury was defined as a peak serum ALT >50 U/L or double the admission value, and hepatotoxicity was defined as a peak ALT >1,000 U/L. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to compare the prognostic performance among variables. Results: A total of 97 patients were admitted to the ED with AAP overdose, of whom 26 had acute liver injury and 6 had hepatotoxicity. Acute liver injury was associated with the time interval after taking the drug, and hepatotoxicity was associated with the initial PT and the ALT level. The scoring system proposed by the authors has a significant ability to predict both acute liver injury and hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: To predict the prognosis of AAP poisoning patients, the time interval after taking AAP was important, and initial prothrombin time and ALT level were useful tests. Also a scoring system combining variables may be useful.
A Case of Cement Hardening Agent Intoxication with Acute Kidney Injury
Young Woo Seo, Tae Chang Jang, Gyun Moo Kim, Seung Hyun Ko
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):157-160.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.157
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Chronic silica nephropathy has been associated with tubulointerstitial disease, immune-mediated multisystem disease, chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease. On the other hand, acute intentional exposure is extremely rare. The authors' experienced a 44-year-old man who took rapid cement hardener (sodium silicate) in a suicide attempt whilst in a drunken state. He visited the emergency department approximately 1 hour after ingestion. Information on the material was obtained after 3 L gastric lavage. The patient complained of a sore throat, epigastric pain, and swollen to blood tinged vomitus. Proton pump inhibitors, hemostats, steroid, and fluids were administered. Nine hours after ingestion, he was administered 200 mL hematochezia. Immediately after, a gas-troenterologist performed an endoscopic procedure that revealed diffuse hyperemic mucosa with a color change and variable sized ulceration in the esophagus, whole stomach, and duodenal $2^{nd}$ portion. Approximately 35 hours later, persistent oligouria and progressive worsening of the renal function parameters (BUN/Cr from 12.2/1.2 to 67.5/6.6 mg/dL) occurred requiring hemodialysis. The patient underwent 8 sessions of hemodialysis for 1 month and the BUN/Cr level increased to 143.2/11.2 mg/dL and decreased to 7.6/1.5 mg/dL. He was discharged safely from the hospital. Follow up endoscopy revealed a severe esophageal stricture and he underwent endoscopic bougie dilatation. Acute cement hardener (sodium silicate) intoxication can cause renal failure and strong caustic mucosal injury. Therefore, it is important to consider early hemodialysis and treatment to prevent gastrointestinal injury and remote esophageal stricture.
CT Findings of Perforation of the Stomach after Ingestion of Glacial Acetic Acid
Hohyun Kim, Seok Ran Yeom, Hyun Min Cho, Kwang-Hee Yeo, Jae-Hun Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):161-164.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.161
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The ingestion of corrosive substances often leads to severe morbidity and mortality. Acids produce coagulation necrosis with a lesser degree of penetration, whereas alkalis produce liquefactive necrosis with penetration. Acetic acid is a clear, colorless organic acid with a pungent, vinegar-like odor. The ingestion of highly concentrated acetic acid (glacial acetic acid) may cause a range of complications. On the other hand, perforation of the stomach is extremely rare but it has a high mortality rate. This paper reports a case of perforation of the stomach after the ingestion of glacial acetic acid with suicidal intent in an otherwise healthy 76-year-old woman.
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for Treatment of Calcium Channel Blockers, Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers, and Metformin Overdose
Jae Han Jeong, Kyung Hoon Sun, Yong Jin Park, Sun Pyo Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):165-171.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.165
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An overdose of antihypertensive agents, such calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs), and the antihyperglycemic agent, metformin, leads to hypotension and lactic acidosis, respectively. A 40-year-old hypertensive and diabetic man with hyperlipidemia and a weight of 110 kg presented to the emergency room with vomiting, dizziness, and hypotension following an attempted drug overdose suicide with combined CCBs, ARBs, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coemzyme A reductase inhibitors, and metformins. A conventional medical treatment initially administered proved ineffective. The treatment was then changed to simultaneous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), which was effective. This shows that simultaneous ECMO and CRRT can be an effective treatment protocol in cases of ineffective conventional medical therapy for hypotension and lactic acidosis due to an overdose of antihypertensive agents and metformin, respectively.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology