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JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

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Volume 16(1); June 2018
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Different Clinical Courses for Poisoning with WHO Hazard Class Ia Organophosphates EPN, Phosphamidon, and Terbufos in Humans
Jong Gu Mun, Jeong Mi Moon, Mi Jin Lee, Byeong Jo Chun
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):1-8.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.1
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Purpose: Extremely hazardous pesticides are classified as World Health Organization (WHO) hazard class Ia. However, data describing the clinical course of WHO class Ia OP (organophosphate) poisonings in humans are very scarce. Here, we compare the clinical features of patients who ingested hazard class Ia OPs. Methods: This retrospective observational case study included 75 patients with a history of ingesting ethyl p-nitrophenol thio-benzene phosphonate (EPN), phosphamidon, or terbufos. The patients were divided according to the chemical formulation of the ingested OP. Data regarding mortality and the development of complications were collected and compared among groups. Results: There were no differences in the baseline characteristics and severity scores at presentation between the three groups. No fatalities were observed in the terbufos group. The fatality rates in the EPN and phosphamidon groups were 11.8% and 28.6%, respectively. Patients poisoned with EPN developed respiratory failure later than those poisoned with phosphamidon and also tended to require longer mechanical ventilatory support than phosphamidon patients. The main cause of death was pneumonia in the EPN group and hypotensive shock in the phosphamidon group. Death occurred later in the EPN group than in the phosphamidon group. Conclusion: Even though all three drugs are classified as WHO class Ia OPs (extremely hazardous pesticides), their clinical courses and the related causes of death in humans varied. Their treatment protocols and predicted outcomes should therefore also be different based on the chemical formulation of the OP.
The Effect of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion in a Rat Model of Verapamil Toxicity
Dae-Myung Ha, Dong Hoon Kim, Taeyun Kim, Soo Hoon Lee, Jin Hee Jeong, Sang Bong Lee, Daesung Lim, Changwoo Kang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):9-14.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.9
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Purpose: Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been shown to have significant therapeutic effects on calcium channel blocker overdose in animal studies and clinical cases. In this preliminary experiment, we investigated the hemodynamic changes and survival in a rat model of verapamil intoxication. Methods: Fourteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were sedated and treated with ILE or normal saline (control), followed by continuous intravenous infusion of verapamil (20 mg/kg/h). Mean arterial pressure and heart rate of rats were monitored during the infusion. In addition, the total dose of infused verapamil and the duration of survival were measured. Results: Survival was prolonged in the ILE group ($32.43{pm}5.8min$) relative to the control group ($24.14{pm}4.3min$) (p=0.01). The cumulative mean lethal dose of verapamil was higher in the ILE group ($4.3{pm}0.7mg/kg$) than in the control group ($3.2{pm}0.5mg/kg$; p=0.017). Conclusion: ILE pretreatment prolonged survival and increased the lethal dose in a rat model of verapamil poisoning.
Factor Analysis of Intoxicated Patients Disposition in Pediatric Emergency Department
Hyun Jung Lee, Youngsoon Cho, Hye Young Jang, Hoon Lim, Bo Young Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):15-24.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.15
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Purpose: This study was conducted to analyze the factors associated with intoxicated patient's disposition in the pediatric emergency department. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated pediatric intoxicated patients visiting the pediatric emergency department of a hospital between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013. Specifically, we analyzed the association between hospitalization recommended rate and the following variables: patient age group, symptoms, intentional poisoning, decontamination and toxic level of substance. Results: We collected data from 345 patients. A high incidence was noted in the 1-4 years of age group and 10-15 years of age group. Unintentional poisoning occurred in 306 patients (88.7%). A total of 115 patients (33.3%) had symptoms when visiting. Forty three patients (12.5%) ingested cleaning substances, which was the most common agent. Potentially-toxic level was the most common level of the substance. The hospitalization recommended rate associated with visits in 2011 was 2.5 times greater than in 2012 and 2013, decontamination was 2.0 times greater than no decontamination, and poisoning with potentially-toxic substances was 2.6 times greater than poisoning with other toxic substances. Additionally, the hospitalization recommended rate associated with symptomatic patients was 2.4 times greater than that of asymptomatic patients and intentional poisoning was 2.4 times greater than unintentional poisoning. Conclusion: Patients with decontamination, ingestion of potentially-toxic substances, symptoms and intentional poisoning had increased hospitalization rates. In addition, the hospitalization rate for patients who visited in 2011 was greater than that of patients who visited in 2012 or 2013.
A Clinical Review of Patients Who Visited Emergency Medical Center with Positive Methamphetamine Tests: A Single Institute Study
Young Bin Ok, Jin Yong Kim, Kyeong Ryong Lee, Dae Young Hong, Kwang Je Baek, Sang O Park, Jong Won Kim, Sin Young Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):25-32.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.25
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Purpose: Methamphetamine is an ongoing illegal drug problem worldwide, and its use in South Korea has spread over the last few years. In this study, a clinical review of patients who visited emergency medical centers with positive methamphetamine tests was conducted. Methods: Patients underwent methamphetamine screening based on physician suspicion over a period of 13 years. Their patient characteristics, clinical features, and drug administration properties were described. Results: A total of 297 patients were included, with 19 positive methamphetamine results. Patient age ranged from 21 to 84, with a mean of 37.52. Additionally, 13 were male and 6 were female. The mean BP, PR, RR were 131/82 mmHg, 94/min, 20/min. Saturation levels were all over 95%. Five patients had a psychiatric history. Patient showed varied symptoms ranging from mental changes to chest discomfort. In addition, seven showed abnormal electrocardiography findings and one showed elevated cardiac enzyme levels. Other laboratory results revealed no significantly abnormal results. Six patients also suffered from related trauma. The majority of patients consumed the methamphetamine orally, with unknown motivation at unknown locations. Most were transported by 119 and six patients co-ingested other drugs. Conclusion: Patients who showed positive results to a methamphetamine screening test in Korea visited the emergency medical center mostly by 119 and were unaware of or reluctant to reveal the fact that they had ingested methamphetamine. Emergency physicians should be more aware of the possibility that a patient may have consumed methamphetamine.
Comparison of Silymarin, Penicillin, N-acetylcysteine in Patient with Amatoxin Poisoning: A Systematic Review
Min Woo Choi, Dong Ryul Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Min Hong Choa, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):33-41.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.33
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Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of pharmacologic treatment of amatoxin poisoning patients. Methods: Literature was accessed through PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, KoreaMed, KISS and KMBASE. Studies relevant to human use of pharmacologic therapy including silymarin, penicillin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for amanita poisoning were included. Case reports, letters, editorials and papers with insufficient information were excluded. Comparison of clinical outcomes (especially mortality and liver transplantation rate) in each study was analyzed. Results: The final analysis included 13 retrospective studies. None of these studies showed direct comparisons of individual agents. Among 12 studies comparing silymarin vs penicillin, eight showed clinical superiority of silymarin. Among eight studies comparing silymarin with NAC, six showed clinical superiority of silymarin. Among seven studies of NAC vs penicillin, five showed clinical superiority of NAC. Conclusion: This systematic review suggested that clinical superiority of various pharmacological agents used to treat amatoxin poisoning is debatable. Nevertheless, the available evidence suggests it is reasonable to consider combinations of multiple agents for patients with amanita poisoning. Further studies are required to establish a treatment regimen for amanita poisoning.
Changes in Toxicological Characteristics after Sales of Nonprescription Drugs in Convenience Stores
Chang Yeong Kim, Eui Jung Lee, Sung Woo Lee, Su Jin Kim, Kap Su Han
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):42-48.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.42
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Purpose: On November 15, 2012, sales of OTC (Over-The-Counter) drugs began at convenience stores, which changed the accessibility of some drugs. As a result, the exposure and access patterns of these drugs could have changed. In this study, we reviewed the changes in the characteristics of drug poisoning patients because of the reposition of nonprescription drugs according to the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Act. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate changes in characteristics of drug poisoning patients between 2008 and 2016. A registry was developed by an emergency medical center in a local tertiary teaching hospital, and patients who visited the center were enrolled in this registry. We compared two periods, from 2008 to 2012 (Pre OTC) and from 2013 to 2016 (Post OTC), for type of intoxicant, time from poisoning to visiting the emergency center, intention, psychiatric history, previous suicidal attempt, alcohol status, and emergency room outcomes. The primary outcome was the number of patients who took acetaminophen and NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Secondary outcomes were ICU admission rate, mortality rate, and number of patients who visited the ER when the pharmacy was closed after taking acetaminophen and NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Results: Among 1,564 patients, 945 and 619 patients visited the emergency room during pre and post OTC periods. The number of patients with acetaminophen and NSAIDs poisoning decreased from 9.2% to 6.1% (p=0.016). The ICU admission rate and mortality rate in the emergency room did not show significant results in the relevant patient groups, and so was the number of patients visiting ER when the pharmacy was closed taking acetaminophen and NSAIDs. Conclusion: Despite the sales of nonprescription drugs at convenience stores, the number of acetaminophen and NSAIDs poisoning patients decreased.
Relationship between Serum Neuron Specific Enolase Level and Seizure in Patients with Acute Glufosinate Ammonium Poisoning
Gyo Jin An, Yoonsuk Lee, Yong Sung Chan, Hyun Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):49-56.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.49
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Purpose: Glufosinate ammonium poisoning can cause seizures, even after a symptom-free period. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) level and the occurrence of seizures in patients with acute glufosinate ammonium poisoning. Methods: For this retrospective observational study, data from patients diagnosed with acute glufosinate ammonium poisoning were collected between January 2016 and June 2016. Serum NSE was measured within 2 hours of arrival at the emergency department. The patients were divided into a seizure group and a non-seizure group. Results: The seizure group included eight of the 15 total patients (53.3%). The serum NSE level was significantly higher in the seizure group than in the non-seizure group ($32.4{pm}11.9ng/mL$ vs. $19.5{pm}5ng/mL$, p=0.019). The amount of glufosinate ingested and initial and peak serum ammonia levels were significantly higher in the seizure group than in the non-seizure group. There was no significant difference in the area under the curve of the serum NSE level or the initial and peak serum ammonia levels in terms of predicting the occurrence of seizures. Conclusion: In acute glufosinate poisoning, initial serum NSE levels may help in prediction of seizures.
Guillain-barré Syndrome after Multiple Bee Stings
Sang-Chan Jin
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):57-59.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.57
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Severe systemic responses including neurologic complications such as myasthenia gravis, myeloradiculopathy, optic neuropathy, parkinsonism, stroke and Guillain-$barr{acute{e}}$ syndrome can occur after bee stings. This case describes a 78-year-old female who presented with symptoms of acute progressive bilateral symmetrical weakness in both lower legs after multiple bee stings. Nerve conduction study findings were consistent with acute sensorimotor axonal neuropathy and recovered by treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. This case highlights that bee stings can result in acute onset Guillain-$barr{acute{e}}$ syndrome, although the pathophysiologies of bee venoms need to be investigated accurately.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology