Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Previous issues

Page Path
HOME > Browse Articles > Previous issues
11 Previous issues
Filter
Filter
Keywords
Authors
Volume 15(2); December 2017
Prev issue Next issue
Trends in Korean Pediatric Poisoning Patients: Retrospective Analysis of National Emergency Department Information System
Kyeongjae Lee, Kyung Hwan Kim, Dong Wun Shin, Junseok Park, Hoon Kim, Woochan Jeon, Joon Min Park, Hyunjong Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):69-78.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.69
  • 67 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study reports the clinical features of infant, child, school aged and adolescent patients treated for acute poisoning in nationwide emergency departments (EDs). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data pertaining to patients under 19 years of age who were treated for acute poisoning in nationwide EDs from 2013 to 2015. The data were collected by the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). All patients were divided into three groups: 'Infant and child group' (0 to 5 years), 'school age group' (6 to 12 years) and 'adolescent group' (13 to 18 years). General characteristics, Korea Standard Classification of Disease $7^{th}$ (KCD-7) codes and results of care were collected. Results: There were 14,500 pediatric poisoning cases during the study period. The distribution of patient age was bimodal with two peaks among infant, child and adolescent group. The proportion of alert mentality at the ED visit of the infant and child group was 99.3%, while that of the adolescent group was 86.4%. The proportion of intentional intoxication was higher in the adolescent group (40.7%) than other age groups. Among children less than 13 years of age, various poisonous substances and therapeutic drugs were common. Conclusion: There were some clinical differences in acute poisoning patients between age groups. It is necessary to establish a preventive plan considering characteristics by age. Since the KCD-7 code has limitations in analyzing the characteristics of poisoning patients, it is necessary to consider the registration system of poisoning patients.
Fomepizole for Ethylene Glycol or Methanol Poisoning in Children
Ha Na Min, Yoon Jung Hwang, Dong Ryul Ko, Young Seon Joo, Tae Young Kong, Min Hong Choa, In Cheol Park, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):79-85.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.79
  • 72 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and adverse effect of fomepizole in the management of acute ethylene glycol or methanol poisoning in children. Methods: Databases such as PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and KoreaMed were searched using terms related to fomepizole, ethylene glycol, methanol and pediatric. All studies, regardless of study design, reporting effectiveness or safety endpoints in children were included. Reference citations from identified publications were reviewed. Only reports written in English or Korean languages were included. The reference search was performed by two authors. Results: Twenty-two relevant literatures were finally included. They were one narrative review, 4 retrospective case series, and 17 case reports (19 cases). Case reports were classified as 5 fomepizole only, 8 fomepizole with other therapies, and 6 no fomepizole. All patients from the literatures were fully recovered without long term sequelae. Adverse effects of fomepizole were reported including anaphylaxis, thrombophlebitis and nystagmus. Conclusion: There are insufficient literatures regarding fomepizole treatment in children with ethylene glycol or methanol poisoning. The benefits or harms are not clearly established based on the clinical evidences. More prospective comparative studies are required in the future.
Analysis of Poisoning Patients Using 2016 ED Based Injury in-depth Surveillance Data
Sung Phil Chung, Mi Jin Lee, Hyunggoo Kang, Bum Jin Oh, Hyun Kim, Yang Weon Kim, Byeong Jo Chun, Kyung Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):86-93.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.86
  • 70 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Some advanced countries have reported annual statistics for poisoning based on data from poison control centers. This study was conducted to propose a baseline format and statistics of poisoning in Korea from a national representative database. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of poisoning patients based on data from an emergency department (ED) based injury in-depth surveillance project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2016. Bite or sting injuries were not included. Variables related to poisoning were summarized using a similar format as the National Poison Data System in the United States. Results: A total of 7,820 poisoning patients presented to 23 EDs. Adults ${geq}20$ years accounted for 84% of the population, while the proportion of intentional poisoning was 59.4%. The most common poisoning substances were therapeutic drugs (45%), gas (21%), pesticides (15%), and artificial toxic substances (13%). Overall, 34.5% of patients were admitted for further treatment. The mortality was 3.2% (248 cases), and the most common causative substances were carbon monoxide, glyphosate, and paraquat, in order. Conclusion: This study showed the recent status of poisoning in Korea. However, a comprehensive poisoning registry based on poison control centers may be required to provide more accurate national statistics in the future.
Is it Adequate to Determine Acetaminophen Toxicity Solely on Patients' History? An Analysis on Clinical Manifestation of Intoxication Patients with Positive Serum Acetaminophen Concentrations
Jee Hyun Kim, Won-joon Jeong, Seung Ryu, Yong Chul Cho, Jang Hyuck Moon, Hyun Soo Choi, Song Hee Yang, Hee Sun Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):94-100.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.94
  • 77 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Acute acetaminophen intoxication is a common occurrence that can cause lethal complications. In most domestic emergency departments, clinicians tend to treat acetaminophen intoxication based on patients' history alone, simply due to the lack of a rapid acetaminophen laboratory test. We performed a 20-month study of intoxication patients to determine the correlation between the history of patients and serum laboratory tests for acetaminophen. Methods: We took blood samples from 280 intoxication patients to evaluate whether laboratory findings detected traces of acetaminophen in the sample. Patients were then treated according to their history. Laboratory results came out after patients' discharge. Agreement between patients' history and laboratory results were analyzed. Results: Among the 280 intoxicated patients enrolled, 38 patients had positive serum acetaminophen concentrations; 18 out of 38 patients did not represent a history suggesting acetaminophen intoxication. One patient without the history showed toxic serum acetaminophen concentration. Among the patients with the history, two patients with toxic serum acetaminophen concentration did not receive N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment due to their low reported doses, while other 2 patients without significant serum acetaminophen concentration did receive NAC treatment due to their high reported doses. Conclusion: This study showed a good overall agreement between history and laboratory test results. However, some cases showed inconsistencies between their history and laboratory test results. Therefore, in treating intoxication patients, a laboratory test of acetaminophen with rapid results should be available in most domestic emergency departments.
Analysis of Death Due to Poisoning in the National Capital Region (2014-2016)
Meejung Park, Jongsin Park, Sangki Lee, Sangwhan In
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):101-106.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.101
  • 73 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study examined the patterns of drugs, poisons, and chemicals detected in autopsy samples performed in the Seoul Institute and other regional forensic offices of the National Forensic Service (NFS) between 2014 and 2016. Methods: The investigation carried out using the laboratory information management system. Forensic toxicological identification and quantitation were performed in autopsy samples, including heart blood, peripheral blood, liver, kidney, vitreous humor and etc. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to analyze the drugs and poisons. Results: Forensic autopsies were performed on 9,674 cases in this period. Based on the autopsy reports, 699 cases (7.2%) were considered as unnatural deaths caused by fatal intoxication. The number of male deaths was higher than that of female deaths, with the age of 50-59 being the most common age group. Conclusion: Drugs comprised the largest number of deaths due to poison, followed by alcohol, agrochemicals, drug with alcohol, carbon monoxide, and cyanide, in that order. Zolpidem was the most frequently used drug in all drug-related intoxication cases.
In vitro Protective Effects of Glehnia Littoralis on Alpha-amanitin Induced Hepatotoxicity
Bo Hyun Kim, Kyung Hoon Sun, Sun Pyo Kim, Yongjin Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):107-115.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.107
  • 62 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Glehnia littoralis has been used to treat ischemic stroke, phlegm, cough, systemic paralysis, antipyretics and neuralgia. The pharmacological mechanisms of Glehnia littoralis include calcium channel block, coumarin derivatives, anticoagulation, anti-convulsive effect, as well as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Alpha-amanitin (${alpha}$-amanitin) is a major toxin from extremely poisonous Amanita fungi. Oxidative stress, which may contribute to severe hepatotoxicity was induced by ${alpha}$-amanitin. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Glehnia littoralis ethyl acetate extract (GLEA) has the protective antioxidant effects on ${alpha}$-amanitin -induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells were pretreated in the presence or absence of GLEA (50, 100 and $200{mu}g/ml$) for 4 hours, then exposed to $60{mu}mol/L$ of${alpha}$-amanitin for an additional 4 hours. Cell viability was evaluated using the MTT method. AST, ALT, and LDH production in a culture medium and intracellular MDA, GSH, and SOD levels were determined. Results: GLEA (50, 100 and $200{mu}g/ml$) significantly increased the relative cell viability by 7.11, 9.87, and 14.39%, respectively, and reduced the level of ALT by 10.39%, 34.27%, and 52.14%, AST by 9.89%, 15.16%, and 32.84%, as well as LDH by 15.86%, 22.98%, and 24.32% in culture medium, respectively. GLEA could also remarkably decrease the level of MDA and increase the content of GSH and SOD in the HepG2 cells. Conclusion: In the in vitro model, Glehnia littoralis was effective in limiting hepatic injury after ${alpha}$-amanitin poisoning. Its antioxidant effect is attenuated by antidotal therapy.
Changes of Poison Data Characteristics Collected from Telephone Response in 1339 and 119: Discrepancy in Characteristics of Post-toxin Exposure Data Obtained through Telephone Counselling Provided by 1339 and 119
Kwang Hoon Park, Jong Su Park, Sung-Woo Lee, Su-Jin Kim, Kap Su Han, Eui Jung Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):116-121.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.116
  • 73 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the toxicologic profiles and outcome of poisoned patients by comparing the data obtained through telephone counselling, each provided by emergency medical information center (1339) and emergency dispatch center (119). Methods: We analyzed the telephone-based poison exposure data before and after Seoul 1339 merged to 119. We compared the Seoul 1339 call response data in 2008 with Seoul and Busan 119 call response data between 2014 and 2016. We analyzed the changes in the trend and quality of data obtained, as well as the quality of service provided by each center before and after this reallocation, by comparing the data each obtained through telephone counselling. Results: The data was collected for a total of 2260 toxin exposure related calls made to Seoul 1339 in 2009, and 1657 calls to 119 in Seoul and Busan between 2014 and 2016. Significant difference was observed for age, sex, and reason for exposure to toxic substance between the two groups. Conclusion: After the integration of 1339 with 119, 119 focused on role of field dispatch and hospital transfer, lacking the consulting on drug poisoning. Moreover, data on exposure to toxic substances at the pre-hospital stage indicate that drug information and counseling are missing or unknown. In addition, first aid or follow-up instructions are not provided. Thus, systematic approach and management are required.
Low-dose Intravenous N-acetylcysteine for the Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Emergency Patients Undergoing Computed Tomography
Tae Wan Lee, Ji-Hoon Kim, Seung Pil Choi
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):122-130.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.122
  • 70 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of low-dose intravenous N-acetylcysteine on the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing computed tomography (CT). Methods: All patients presenting to our emergency department and undergoing CT with intravenous contrast media between August 2014 and April 2016 were retrospectively enrolled. We included hospitalized patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) between 30 and $89mL/min/1.73m^2$]. A 600-mg injection of N-acetylcysteine was given to patients once before and once immediately after CT, depending on the preference of physician. The primary outcome was CIN defined as an increase in creatinine level of ${geq}25%$ or ${geq}0.5mg/dL$ from the baseline within 48 to 72 hours after CT. A trained person blindly reviewed all medical records. Results: Of the 1903 admitted patients, CIN occurred in 9.8% of patients who received 1200 mg intravenous N-acetylcysteine (24/244) and 6.8% of patients who did not (113/1659, p=0.090). In a multivariable regression analysis, N-acetylcystine was not relevant to the prevention of CIN (odds ratio=1.42 [95% CI, 0.90-2.26]). Even in the stratified analysis using the propensity score matching, N-acetylcysteine was irrelevant (GFR 30-59: odds ratio=1.06 [95% CI, 0.43-2.60]; GFR 60-89: odds ratio=1.76 [95% CI, 0.75-4.14]). After adjustment, crystalloids were significantly associated with the reduction in CIN compared with dextrose water (odds ratio=0.60 [95% CI, 0.37-0.97]). Conclusion: No effect was found when low-dose intravenous N-acetylcysteine was used to prevent CIN. However, there seems to be an association between crystalloids and reduction in CIN.
Epidemiologic Characteristics of Intentional Poisoning: Emergency Department Based Injury in-depth Surveillance During 2011-2015
Hak Soo Lee, Juhee Han, Ji Hoon Kim, Sunpyo Kim, Sun Hyu Kim, Ji Sook Lee, Gyu Chong Cho, Chul Han, Joon Min Park, Sung Phil Chung, Min Joung Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):131-139.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.131
  • 82 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of patients who visited emergency departments (EDs) after intentional poisoning in Korea. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the data of of 23 hospitals during a five-year period, between 2011 and 2015. We included patients who inflicted injury to themselves - attempt of suicide - by means of poisoning. Results: A total of 18,121 patients visited an ED after intentional poisoning. Among them, 58.3% were females; however, there were more males among those aged 60 years or older. The mortality rate for males was 8.6%, which was 3.1 times higher than that for females with 2.8%. The most common poison was pesticides (35.4%) in males and sedative-hypnotics (44.0%) in females. The most common causative agent of death was pesticide in both sexes (75.2% and 65.3%, respectively). Since the production of paraquat was discontinued in 2011, the number of deaths from pesticide poisoning has decreased. The mortality rate declined in both males and females, from 12.6% and 4.5% in 2011 to 7.1% and 2.1% in 2015, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, we analyzed the epidemiologic characteristics of intentional poisoning, especially the frequency of suicide attempts by gender and age group, the cause of suicide, and the causative agent. This can be used as basic data for establishing policies to reduce and prevent suicide attempts by poisoning.
Analysis of Characteristics in Children and Adolescents with Poisoning at Emergency Department
Do Young Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Jin Hui Paik, Seung Baek Han, Hyun Min Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):140-147.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.140
  • 73 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study was conducted to analyze the features of poisoning in individuals aged 0-18 years to understand the characteristics of potential victims and eventually prevent poisoning. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed poisoned children and adolescents (0-18 years) who visited the emergency department of one tertiary hospital from January 2003 through December 2013. We collected data including their age, sex, reason for poisoning, components and dose of poison, results of treatment, and psychiatric diagnosis. Results: During the study period, there were 436 cases of poisoning (male 47.2% (n=206); female 52.8% (n=230)). Subjects were classified into four groups (0-1 years, 2-5 years, 6-12 years, 13-18 years). The most common cause of poisoning in all age groups was accidental poisoning (72.9%), but intentional poisoning increased as age increased (p<0.001). Moreover, females were more often subject to intentional poisoning than males (p<0.001). The most common poisoning material was drugs (41.7%). Among intentional poisoning patients, 62.7% patients had consulted a psychiatrist, and their most common diagnosis was adjustment disorder (44.6%). Conclusion: The most common cause of poisoning in individuals aged 0-18 years was accidental poisoning, while intentional poisoning was most common among adolescents. Guardians should take care to prevent accidental poisoning, while psychiatric consultation and national moderation will be needed to prevent intentional poisoning.
A Case of a Herbicide Poisoning Induced Methemoglobinemia Patient Treated with High-dose Vitamin C
Kyung Hoon Sun, Jun Kew Kim, Chang Yeon Ryu, Seo Jin Kim, Hyeon Kyu Jo, Tae Ho Yoo, Yong Jin Park, Sun pyo Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):148-151.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.148
  • 72 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Methemoglobinemia is a condition in which the iron portion of hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen, is oxidized to produce methemoglobin, which increases blood concentration. There are many causes of methemoglobinemia, the most common being food, drugs, and chemicals. A 75-year-old male patient who had taken an herbicide did not notice any nonspecific symptoms. However, after 4 hours, his methemoglobin levels increased to 17.1%, while after 7 hours it increased to 26.5%, at which time intravenous administration of methylene blue 1 mg/kg (an antidote) was started. After a total of five doses of methylene blue at 1 mg/kg due to reactive methemoglobinemia for about 36 hours, the methemoglobin levels increased to 23.7%. Because no more methylene blue could be administered, 10 g of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was administered intravenously. After 82 hours, ascorbic acid 10 g was administered six times for repeated reactive methemoglobinemia. No additional reactive methemoglobinemia was observed. The ventilator and endotracheal tube were successfully removed on day 5 after admission.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology