Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Previous issues

Page Path
HOME > Browse Articles > Previous issues
10 Previous issues
Filter
Filter
Keywords
Authors
Volume 14(1); 2016
Prev issue Next issue
Extracorporeal Life Support in Treatment of Poisoning Patient: Systematic Review
Yong Hee Lee, Dong Ryul Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Young Seon Joo, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):1-8.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 75 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a term used to describe a number of modalities including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to support cardiac and/or pulmonary systems. The purpose of this study is to review the available evidence regarding the effect of ECLS in patients with acute poisoning. Methods: Electronic literature searches with PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and KoreaMed were conducted for identification of relevant studies addressing ECLS in treatment of acute poisoning. The literature search was conducted by two investigators in March, 2016 with publication language restricted to English and Korean. The toxic substance, technique of ECLS, and final outcome of each case were analyzed. Results: The final analysis included 64 articles including 55 case reports. There were no articles classified according to a high level of evidence such as randomized trial and prospective cohort study. ECLS treatment was used in the management of patients poisoned with 36 unique substances. Venovenous ECMO was performed in 4 cases. Among the reported cases, 10 patients died despite treatment with ECLS. Conclusion: Evidence supporting ECLS for patients with acute poisoning is inadequate. However, many case reports suggest that early consideration of ECLS in poisoned patients with refractory cardiac arrest or hemodynamic compromise refractory to standard therapies may be beneficial.
Administration and Efficiency Comparison of Chloral Hydrate during Pediatric Sedation
Jung Ah Bae, Yoon Hee Choi, Ah Jin Kim, Sun Hwa Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):9-15.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 79 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: In most emergency department (ED), sedation is required before carrying out an invasive procedure on a pediatric patient. In the ED setting, it is essential to determine the optimal dose and administration route of CH for successful sedation. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dose of CH for an invasive procedure and to examine the effectiveness of the drug's different administration routes. Furthermore, in this study, we performed simple survey using questionnaire which composed of Likert-scale to evaluate satisfaction of medical staffs in ED with administration routes. Methods: This study was conducted prospectively. The study participants were pediatric patients under 8 years old who visited the ED in two tertiary hospitals in South Korea within a period of 12 months. Results: Overall, 300 patients were included in this study. The age, sex, and weight of the patients were not shown to influence the sedation time. Chloral hydrate dosage is the independent factor to influence the both sedation and discharge time (p<0.01). In the comparison of the groups, groups 1, 2, and 5 showed no significant difference. On the other hand, groups 3 and 4 were shown to be statistically significantly different from group 1. Conclusion: Up to 100 mg/kg CH is safe to use in the emergency department for pediatric patients, but the initial dose of 50 mg/kg for oral administration should be considered in advance because it can provide safe and effective sedation with a lower possibility of causing an adverse effect.
Prognostic Value of Blood Lactate for Mortality of Acutely Poisoned Patients in Emergency Department
Hye Ran Kim, Mun Ju Kang, Yong Hwan Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Kwang Won Cho, Seong Youn Hwang, Dong Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):16-25.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 71 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Patients suffering from acute poisoning by different substances often visit the emergency department (ED) and receive various prognoses according to the toxic material and patients' condition. Hyperlactatemia, which is an increased blood lactate level that generally indicates tissue hypoperfusion, is commonly utilized as a prognostic marker in critically ill patients such as those with sepsis. This study was conducted to investigate the relationships between blood lactate and clinical prognosis in acute poisoned patients. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to June 2014 at a single and regional-tertiary ED. We enrolled study patients who were examined for blood test with lactate among acute intoxicated patients. The toxic materials, patient demographics, laboratory data, and mortalities were also reviewed. Additionally, we analyzed variables including blood lactate to verify the correlation with patient mortality. Results: A total of 531 patients were enrolled, including 24 (4.5%) non-survivors. Patient age, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), serum creatinine (Cr), aspartate transaminase (AST), and serum lactate differed significantly between survivors and non-survivors in the binary logistic regression analysis. Among these variables, GCS, AST, and lactate differed significantly. The median serum lactate levels were 2.0 mmol/L among survivors and 6.9 mmol/L among non-survivors. The AUC with the ROC curve and odds ratio of the initial serum lactate were 0.881 and 3.06 (0.89-8.64), respectively. Conclusion: Serum lactate was correlated with fatalities of acute poisoning patients in the ED; therefore, it may be used as a clinical predictor to anticipate their prognoses.
Risk Factors for Aspiration Pneumonia in Acute Benzodiazepine Overdose
Won Sik Chung, Kyung Man Cha, Hyung Min Kim, Won Jung Jeong, Byung Hak So
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):26-32.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 90 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Aspiration pneumonia is an important complication of drug intoxication with decreased mental status. The purpose of the study is to investigate the risk factors of aspiration pneumonia in the patients of benzodiazepine overdose with or without co-ingestion of other drugs. Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients who visited the emergency department between January 2012 and December 2014 was conducted. Demographic data, time from ingestion to visit, initial vital signs, symptoms, mental status, medical history, laboratory results, chest radiological findings and co-ingested medications were recorded. Multiple logistic analyses were performed to verify the association between variables and the development of aspiration pneumonia. Results: A total of 249 patients presented to the emergency department with benzodiazepine overdose. Aspiration pneumonia had developed in 24 patients (9.6%). Univariate analysis revealed time from ingestion to visit was longer, Glasgow coma scale score was lower, hypoxia was presented, leukocytosis was shown, types of ingested drugs was high, less activated charcoal was applied and tricyclic antidepressants was taken in patients that developed aspiration pneumonia. Time from ingestion to visit (odds ratio (OR) 1.121, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.057-1.189, p=0.000), GCS score (OR 0.724. 95% CI, 0.624-0.839, p=0.000), oxygen saturation (OR 0.895, 95% CI, 0.835-0.959, p=0.002), and co-ingestion of TCA (OR 4.595, 95% CI, 1.169-18.063, p=0.029) were identified as risk factors of morbidity of aspiration pneumonia upon multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Time from ingestion to visit, low GCS score, low oxygen saturation and co-ingestion of TCA were risk factors of the development of aspiration pneumonia in benzodiazepine overdose patients.
A Clinical Analysis of Patient Exposure to Sulfuric Acid Injured
Se Kwang Oh, Hee Jun Shin, Byeong Dai Yoo, Duck Ho Jun, Dong Ha Lee, Ki Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):33-36.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 82 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study was conducted to identify the characteristics associated with sulfuric acid injury in the emergency department. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from January 2007 to December 2015 on all sulfuric acid injuries presenting to the emergency department in Gu-mi Soonchunhyung University Hospital. Patients injured by sulfuric acid were recorded over a nine year study period and collected data included demographics, injury mechanism, injured body part, hospital care and final diagnosis. Results: A total of 26 cases were identified. Most patients were male (88.5%) and the face was the most commonly injured body part. The most common mechanism of injury was splashing injury. A total of 16 (61.5%) patients were identified as having lesions worse than second degree burns. Conclusion: Sulfuric acid can cause severe and fatal skin burn. When working with sulfuric acid, acid proof protect clothing, goggles and glove should be worn. Furthermore, safety education and workplace environment improvement are necessary to reduce sulfuric acid injury.
Limitation of Psychiatric Intervention for Suicidal Drug Intoxication Patients in Emergency Room
Joo Hwan Lee, Seung Jun Yang, Seung Wan Eun, Sang Chan Jin, Woo Ik Choi, Sung Won Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):37-46.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 75 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study was designed to determine the factors hindering psychiatric intervention for suicide attempters in the emergency room (ER). Methods: Participants were 299 patients aged 18 years or older admitted to the ER for suicidal drug overdose between July 2012 and June 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they had received psychiatric treatment in the ER. Medical histories and follow-up treatments were determined by examining patients' medical records and through phone surveys, and were then compared using ${chi}^2$-test and Fisher's exact test. In addition, the rate of satisfaction of the treatment group and the reasons for their dissatisfaction were also determined. Results: The treatment and non-treatment groups comprised 135 (45%) and 164 patients (55%), respectively. Factors influencing participation in psychiatric intervention were previous history of suicide attempts (p=0.004), history of psychiatric disorder (p<0.001), time of day (p=0.039), and day of the week (p=0.040) of arrival in the ER. Whether or not the patient received follow-up psychiatric treatment was not significantly relevant (p=0.300). Of the 82 patients who participated in the treatment satisfaction survey, 50.2% reported being unsatisfied, mainly because of unfriendly medical personnel (36.6%), discomfort regarding other people's perceptions (24.4%), and cursory care (14.6%). Conclusion: To raise the participation rate of psychiatric consult, cooperation with psychiatry at night and on weekends is required, and incorporation of patients without previous history of suicidal attempt or other psychiatric disorder is important. Resolution of complaints toward psychiatric consult in suicide attempt survivors is also required.
Trends of Intentional Poisoning: A Retrospective Single Center Study During 15 Years
Sung Kyu Kong, Sang Hoon Oh, Kyu Nam Park, Han Joon Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):47-53.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 87 View
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Intentional poisoning is a major public health issue in many parts of the world. This study was conducted to provide details regarding the epidemiology of intentional poisoning in a metropolitan emergency department and to identify the changing patterns and epidemiology of poisoning. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate intentional poisoning of patients who visited the emergency department in a tertiary teaching hospital between 2001 and 2015. All intentional poisoning-related emergency department visits over three five year periods (2001-2005 (P1), 2006-2010 (P2) and 2011-2015 (P3)) were reviewed to investigate trends in intentional poisoning patients. Information regarding patient sex, age, time from episode to admission, psychiatric history, type of intoxicants, alcohol co-ingestion, gastric lavage, charcoal administration, any previous suicide attempts, need for hospitalization and death before discharge was reviewed. Results: A total of 1269 patients were enrolled in this study. The number of patients admitted during each period was P1=515, P2=439 and P3=315. Comparison of the three groups revealed significant differences according to age (p<0.001), psychiatric history (p<0.001), alcohol co-ingestion (p=0.013), gastric lavage (p<0.001), charcoal administration (p<0.001), need for hospitalization (p=0.044), repeated attempt (p<0.001) and type of intoxicants (p<0.001). Conclusion: The average age of intentional poisoning patients has increased. While the use of sedatives and multiple drugs increased, the use of pesticides and the antihistamine decreased.
Contributing Factors for the Registration Rates within Emergency Department Based Post-suicidal Care Program
Dong-Ki Kim, Byeong Jo Chun, Jong Mi Moon, Yong Soo Cho, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Hyun Jung Kim, Mi Jin Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):54-59.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 83 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the independent factors associated with the registration rate for the community-based post suicidal care program in the emergency department (ED). Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted between January and September 2015 at the academic ED in the tertiary urban hospital. The variables examined included gender, age, address, type of insurance, history of previous psychiatric disease, suicide methods, number of previous attempts, CES-D (The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale), and disposition at ED. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify factors affecting the registration rate for the community-based post suicidal care program. Results: Overall, 331 suicides were investigated, 61 (18.4%) of which were registered in the post-suicide care program. Factors such as a intervention by psychiatric physician (OR: 3.287, 95%; CI: 1.207-9.624) and levels of depression by CES-D score of 16-24 (OR: 3.635; CI: 1.055-12.526) were significantly correlated with registration for the program. Conclusion: The registration rate for the community-based post suicidal care program was influenced by frequent intervention by a psychiatric physician and levels of depression by CES-D score of 16-24.
A Case of Aconite Poisoning Successfully Recovered after Intravenous Fat Emulsion Therapy
Hee Jun Shin, Hoon Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):60-65.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 91 View
  • 2 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Aconitum is a genus of various species of flowering plants that belongs to the Family Ranunculaceae. Most Aconitum sp. have extremely toxic alkaloid substances such as aconitine, mesaconitine and hypaconitine. Among these substances, aconitine can cause fatal cardiotoxicity by activating sodium channels followed by calcium channels in myocardial cells. Even though there have been various therapeutic plans suggested comprising antidotes based on diverse case reports and studies, there is no confirmatory treatment protocol for aconite poisoning. Here, we report an aconite poisoning patient who had refractory ventricular tachyarrhythmia that did not respond to intravenous amiodarone therapies even though they were sustained for over 2 hours, but showed successful recovery following intravenous fat emulsions (IFE) therapy.
Two Cases of Neurotoxin Tetramine Poisoning Following Ingestion of Buccinum Striatissinum
So Eun Kim, Jae Baek Lee, Young Ho Jin, Jae Chol Yoon, Si On Jo, Jeong Moon Lee, Tae Oh Jeong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):66-69.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 70 View
  • 2 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Some carnivorous gastropods have heat stable tetramine toxins in their salivary glands. This toxin is an autonomic ganglionic blocking agent that enables them to catch the prey easily by paralyzing their targets. Acute tetramine toxin poisoning in humans from eating whelks has been well described based on numerous cases, but is rare in Korea. Symptoms of tetramine poisoning include eyeball pain, blurred vision, headache, dizziness, muscular twitching, tingling of hands and feet, weakness, paralysis and sometimes collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting can also occur. However, intoxication is self-limiting and patients will usually recover in about 24 hours. Herein, we report 2 cases of tetramine poisoning after ingestion of Buccinum striatissinum as meat and soup.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology