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JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

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Volume 13(2); 2015
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Initial Blood Glucose Can Predict the Outcome of OP Poisoning
Sung Do Lee, Jeong Mi Moon, Byeong Jo Chun
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):55-61.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Purpose: Many studies have examined the mechanisms of impaired glucose homeostasis after organophosphate (OP) exposure, however no study has evaluated the clinical utility of blood glucose measurements in patients with OP poisoning. The current study was conducted to evaluate the initial glucose level at presentation and the glycemic variables during the first 3 days after admission as a predictor of mortality. Methods: This retrospective observational case series included 228 patients with a history of OP poisoning. Among other clinical data, information on the initial glucose level at presentation and mean glucose level, delta glucose level, and the presence of a hypoglycemic event during the first 3 days of admission, was collected. Results: Survivors had lower initial glucose levels at presentation and glucose variability during the first 3 days of admission compared to non-survivors. The frequency of hypoglycemic events was higher in non-survivors. In multivariate analysis, the initial glucose level (> 233 mg/dl) was an independent predictor of mortality, along with age. Conclusion: The initial glucose level at presentation can be helpful in prediction of mortality in cases of OP intoxication at bedside. The physician should pay attention to patients with a glucose level >233 mg/dl at presentation after ingestion of OP.
Evaluation of Cardiac Function by Transthoracic Echocardiography in Patients with Myocardial Injury Secondary to Organophosphate Poisoning
Yoonsuk Lee, Oh Hyun Kim, Hyung Il Kim, Kyoung Chul Cha, Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang, Yong Sung Cha
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):62-70.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Purpose: Cardiac complications may occur in cases of organophosphate (OP) poisoning. However, a few studies regarding patterns of cardiac toxicity as determined by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) after exposure to OP have been reported. In the current study, the authors examined cardiac functions using TTE in patients with myocardial injury caused by exposure to OP. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 16 consecutive cases of OP poisoning with myocardial injury (defined as elevated troponin I within 48 hours of arrival at the regional emergency center in South Korea and diagnosed and treated at the center from January 2012 to November 2014. Results: TTE was performed in 11 (69%) of the 16 patients with an elevated troponin I (TnI) level within 48 hours. Of these 11 patients, 5 patients (45.5%) exhibited reduced ejection fraction (EF), and 3 exhibited regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA). Two patients (18.2%) had both reduced systolic function and RWMA. Two of the 5 patients with reduced EF returned to normal systolic function, however two patients did not regain normal systolic function after admission. One patient expired due to multiple organ failure, and 4 patients were transferred with a moribund status. Twelve of 15 patients who survived to discharge (at 4 to 35 months) were followed. Five of these patients died during follow-up and 7 survived without further complications. Conclusion: OP can cause reversible cardiac dysfunction including reduced systolic function and RWMA. Serum TnI may be useful for initial assessment of cardiac function during the workup of patients suffering from OP poisoning. After the initial assessment of cardiac enzyme, further evaluation with TTE in patients with abnormal cardiac enzyme will be necessary to understand the cardiac toxicity.
Clinical Analysis of Acute Endosulfan Poisoning: Single Center Experience
So Eun Kim, Su Ik Kim, Jae Baek Lee, Young Ho Jin, Tae Oh Jeong, Si On Jo, Jae Chol Yoon
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):71-77.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Purpose: Acute endosulfan poisoning is rare but causes significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study is to describe complications and features of seizure and determine factors associated with mortality in acute endosulfan poisoning. Methods: Twenty-eight adult patients with acute endosulfan poisoning admitted to our emergency department during a 15-year period were studied retrospectively. The clinical features of seizure, use of antiepileptic drugs during seizure, and hospital courses were evaluated. Clinical factors between survived group and non-survived group were compared for identification of factors associated with mortality. Results: Of the 28 patients with endosulfan poisoning, 4 patients (14.3%) died and 15 (53.6%) patients developed generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Thirteen patients (46.4%) and 5 patients (17.9%) progressed to status epilepticus (SE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE), respectively. SE and RSE were associated with mortality. Almost all significant complications including shock, acute renal failure, hepatic toxicity, rhabdomyolysis, and cardiac injury developed in SE and RSE patients. Conclusion: SE and RSE were important contributors to death in endosulfan poisoning. Emergency physicians treating endosulfan poisoning should make an effort not to progress seizure following endosulfan poisoning to SE and RSE using a rapid and aggressive antiepileptic drug.
A Clinical Analysis of Patients Who Visited Emergency Department due to Chemical Incident Occurred at Industrial Place: A Retrospective Study
Hee Jun Shin, Se Kwang Oh, Byeong Dai Yoo, Duck Ho Jun, Dong Ha Lee, Kuck Hyeun Woo, Seong Yong Yoon, Sung Yong Choi
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):78-86.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand what kinds of chemical substances have been used annually and to investigate incidents that occurred due to chemical hazard release and to analyze statistically clinically chemical injury patients who visited one regional emergency medical center in Gumi city with documented references review. Methods: Annual chemical waste emission quantity (Kg/Year) (Cwep) was reproduced using national web site data governed by the Ministry of Environment and 5 years (from 1 .Jan. 2010 to 31. Dec. 2014) of medical records of chemical injury patients who visited our emergency department were reviewed retrospectively. By applying exclusion criteria, 446 patients of 460 patients were selected. Results: Dichloromethane, Toluene, Trichloroethylene, and Xylene were always included within Top 5 of Cweq. Six cases of chemical incidents were reported and in 3 of 6 cases involving Hydrogen fluoride were included during the study period. Male gender and twenties were the most prevalent group. Injury evoking chemicals were Hydrogen fluoride, unknown, complex chemicals (over 2 substances) in sequence. The most frequent site of wounds and injuries was the respiratory tract. Gas among status, intoxication among diagnosis, and discharge among disposition was most numerous in each group. Conclusion: There have been no uniform clinical protocols for chemical wounds and injuries due to various kinds of chemicophysical properties and ignorance of antidotes. Therefore conduct of a multicenter cohort study and experiments for ruling out chemicals according to chemicophysical priority as well as development of antidotes and clinical protocols for chemical injury patients is needed.
Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis by Initial Endoscopic Severity in Caustic Injury
Sang Min Lee, Woo Ik Choi, Sung Jin Kim, Sang Chan Jin
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):87-94.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Purpose: We investigated comparison of clinical characteristics and prognosis by initial endoscopic severity in caustic injury and then discussed predisposing factors which can be helpful in predicting the prognosis and determining the treatment. Methods: This study was a retrospective review of medical records from patients over the age of 15, who underwent initial endoscopy for caustic injury from April 2007 through November 2014. Patients were classified according to two groups based on the initial endoscopic finding by Zargar's classification: patients with grade 0, I, IIa at esophagus (low risk group) and patients with grade IIb, IIIa, IIIb at esophagus (high risk group). The two groups were then compared. Results: A total of 55 patients were included (low risk group [n=44] vs. high risk group [n=11]). Old age (p<0.001), large amount of ingestion (p<0.05), oropharyngeal symptoms (p<0.01), high SOFA score (p<0.001), high WBC count (p<0.05), low base excess (p<0.01), and HCO3 (p<0.05) were statistically significant factors in the high risk group. A poor prognosis was observed for hospital stay (p<0.001), ICU admission (p<0.001), mortality (p<0.01), and stricture (p<0.001) in the high risk group. Conclusion: Clinical characteristics including age, amount of ingestion, oropharyngeal symptoms, SOFA score, WBC count, base excess, and $HCO_3$ can be helpful in the decision to undergo initial endoscopy and risk assessment by initial endoscopic severity can be helpful in predicting prognosis and determining the treatment plan.
Factors associated with Occurrence of Aspiration Pneumonia in the Patient with Sedative-hypnotics Acute Overdose
Min Jin Kang, Jee Yong Lim, Sang Hoon Oh, Han Joon Kim, Young-Min Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):95-102.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Purpose: Drug overdose is easily found in the emergency department (ED). Sedative-hypnotics overdose causes the aspiration pneumonia in patients with decreased mental status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors of aspiration pneumonia in patients poisoned with sedative-hypnotics. Methods: One hundred seventy eight patients who were poisoned with sedative-hypnotics and who visited ED between 2009 and 2015 were included. This study was conducted retrospectively, with collection of data by review of medical records. We collected the data concerning the characteristics of patients and classified them into two groups based on the development of aspiration pneumonia. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors for the development of aspiration pneumonia. Results: Thirty five patients had an aspiration pneumonia during their hospital stay in 178 patients. The age, amount of ingestion, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, a history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and the hypotension at admission were significantly different between two groups in univariate analysis. The age, amount of ingestion and GCS score at admission were associated with the development of aspiration pneumonia in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR 1.028 (95%CI, 1.002-1.056, p=0.037), 1.026 (95%CI, 1.004-1.043, p=0.001), 0.737 (95%CI, 0.683-0.915, p=0.002)). All patients with aspiration pneumonia were discharged without a sequelae. Conclusion: The development of aspiration pneumonia in the patients of sedative-hypnotics overdose is associated with old age, amount of drug ingestion, and GCS score at admission.
Effect of High Dose Insulin/Euglycemia Therapy for Acute Calcium Channel Blocker Intoxication: A Systematic Review
Jinmo Yang, Dong Ryul Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Young Seon Joo, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):103-110.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and the adverse events of high dose insulin/euglycemia therapy in acute calcium channel blocker (CCB) poisoning. Methods: We developed a systematic search strategy and applied it to 4 electronic reference databases. We searched medical journals as well as the bibliographies of relevant articles. All forms of literature relevant to human use of high dose insulin for acute CCB poisoning were included. The literature search was conducted by two investigators in August, 2015 with publication language restricted to English and Korean. Case reports were divided between CCB overdose alone and multi-drug overdose including CCB. The effect and adverse event of high dose insulin and clinical outcome of each case were analyzed. Results: Among 55 searched studies, 20 studies were included. A prospective study, a retrospective study, a systematic review study, and 17 case reports were identified. Case reports consisted of 11 CCB alone and 12 multidrug overdose cases including CCB. Although most cases described significant clinical improvements, one of them showed no beneficial effect. Several adverse events including hypoglycemia and hypokalemia were reported. No significant sequalae from adverse events was reported. Conclusion: Although there were many case reports demonstrating successful use of high dose insulin for CCB poisoning, the effect cannot be estimated due to a possibility of publication bias. Therefore, high dose insulin/euglycemia therapy might be considered adjunctive therapy in cases of CCB intoxication refractory for standard therapy.
A Patient Presenting with Elevations of Cardiac Enzyme Levels after Veratrum Oxysepalum Ingestion
Ji Young Hwang, Hyun Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):111-116.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Veratrum patulum has toxicological relevance because of the potential for misidentification of this plant as mountain garlic. Veratrum patulum has an ester-alkaloid that provokes cardiac arrhythmias by excessive vagal stimulation and depression of the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes of the heart and hypotension, cardiomegaly. We report on a retrospective case of successful outcome in patients with veratrum patulum poisoning through active treatment from the early phase after ingestion. We report on a case involving a patient who experienced dizziness, dyspnea, hypotension, and elevation of cardiac enzyme, cardiomegaly. These cases were kept under observation and generally recovered with supportive care. We report on cases of veratrum patulum poisoning with review of literature.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology