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JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

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Won Kim 7 Articles
The Experiences of the Emergency Antidote Stock and Delivery Service by the Korean Poison Information Center
So Young Park, Bum Jin Oh, Chang Hwan Sohn, Ru Bi Jeong, Kyoung Soo Lim, Won Kim, Seung Mok Ryoo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(1):9-18.   Published online June 30, 2013
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Purpose: Antidotes for toxicological emergencies can be life-saving. However, there is no nationwide stocking and delivery system for emergency antidotes in Korea. We report on a two-year experience of a nationwide stocking and delivery trial for emergency antidotes at emergency departments in Korea. Methods: An expert panel of clinical toxicologists reviewed and made a list of 15 stocked antidote. These antidotes were purchased or imported from other countries and delivered from 14 antidote stocking hospitals nationwide 24 hours per day, seven days per week. Results: From August 1, 2011 to April 30, 2013, 177 patients with acute poisoning, with a median age of 48.5 years, were administered emergency antidotes. The causes of poisoning were intentional in 52.0% and 88.0% were intentional as a suicide attempt. Regarding clinical severity, using the poisoning severity score, 40.7% of patients had severe to fatal poisoning and 39.0% had moderate poisoning according to clinical severity. The most frequent presenting symptom was neurologic deficit, such as altered mentality (62.7%). alerted mentality (62.7%). Emergency antidotes were administered as follows: methylene blue (49 cases), flumazenil (31), N-acetylcysteine (25), glucagon (17), 100% ethanol (15), cyanide antidote kit (12), anti-venin immunoglobulin (5), pyridoxine (4), hydroxocobalamine (2), and deferoxamine (1). The median time interval from antidote request to delivery at the patient's bedside was 95 minutes (interquartile range 58.8-125.8). Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated the possibility of successful operation of the nationwide system of emergency antidotes stocking and delivery in Korea.
A Case of Severe Aconitine Intoxication with Ventricular Tachycardia, Successfully Treated by a Combination of Two Anti-arrhythmic Drugs
Seung-Mok Ryoo, Chang-Hwan Sohn, Bum-Jin Oh, Won Kim, Kyoung-Soo Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2011;9(2):105-108.   Published online December 31, 2011
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Aconitine is an anti-inflammatory agent with therapeutic uses in oriental medicine as an analgesic and for treatment of stroke. Because of its sodium channel effect, aconitine can promote undesirable, wide complex tachyarrhythmia. If tachycardia develops during use of aconitine, class Ia and class III anti arrhythmic drugs can be utilized for treatment. However there are no single anti-arrhythmia agents which are uniformly effective. We report a case, characterized by wide complex tachyarrhythmia and severe hypotension, which was successfully treated by simultaneous injections of amiodarone and lidocaine. A 59-year-old woman exhibiting clinical signs of drowsiness as a result of ingesting 6 g of aconitine, was admitted to the emergency department. Initially, wide complex tachyarrhythmia (ventricular tachycardia and pulse rate of 180 beats/min) and severe hypotension (blood pressure of 53/26 mmHg) was observed. After simultaneous injection of amiodarone and lidocaine, the patient's rhythm pattern changed to an accelerated junctional rhythm with ventricular premature complex. Two hours later, the patient's heart pattern became a sinus rhythm. As demonstrated by this case, simultaneous injections of amiodarone and lidocaine can be useful in treating ventricular arrhythmia induced by aconitine.
The Clinical Characteristics and Mortality Factors of Patients with Hemorrhagic Complications after Anticoagulation Therapy with Warfarin
Se-Ho Lee, Nam-Kyu Kim, Chang-Hwan Sohn, Jung-Hun Kim, Won Kim, Kyung-Soo Lim, Bum-Jin Oh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):164-171.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: The number of patients who take warfarin is growing and so is the number of complications. Hemorrhage is the major complication, but the clinical characteristics and outcomes have not been determined for Korean patients. Therefore, we tried to evaluate the characteristics of the patients with hemorrhagic complications after taking warfarin as anticoagulation therapy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients who visited the emergency room with bleeding complications after taking warfarin anticoagulation at the out-patient clinic for 1 year from 1 st January 2008. We compared between two groups (the major hemorrhage group vs. the minor hemorrhage group) according to the clinical criteria, the unstable vital signs that required blood transfusion, transfusion more than 2 units of blood, the need for further laboratory follow-up, the need for interventional treatment and the development of critical complications or death due to bleeding. Results: There were 150 patients who met the criteria and had acute hemorrhagic complications (the major group: 90 patients and the minor group: 60 patients). In the major hemorrhage group, the frequent sites of bleeding were the gastro-intestinal system (40 patients), lung (14 patients) and intracranium (7 patients). At the emergency room, the major group showed a higher initial INR of the activated prothrombin time than did the minor group (p=0.02). The bleeding sites of the fatal cases were the gastro-intestinal system (3 patients), lung (3 patients) and intracranium (3 patients), but the percentage of fatality was the highest for intracranium bleeding. Conclusion: In the major hemorrhage group, gastrointestinal bleeding was the most frequent complication and fatality was the highest for intracranium bleeding. An initially higher INR showed a greater risk of major bleeding, but not more fatalities.
Liver Transplantation for Acute Toxic Hepatitis due to Herbal Medicines and Preparations
Chang-Hwan Sohn, Myung-Il Cha, Bum-Jin Oh, Woon-Hyung Yeo, Jae-Ho Lee, Won Kim, Kyoung-Soo Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(2):110-116.   Published online December 31, 2008
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Purpose: Acute toxic hepatitis is a common cause of acute liver failure (ALF). We investigated the causes, clinical manifestation, and outcomes of ALF patients who underwent liver transplantation due to acute toxic hepatitis caused by herbal medicines and preparations. Methods: Between January 1992 and May 2008, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 24 patients who were transplanted due to acute toxic hepatitis caused by herbal medicines and preparations. We applied the RUCAM score to patients with acute toxic hepatitis and assessed the relationship between herbal preparations and liver injury. We studied the patients' medication history, liver function tests, and clinical outcomes. Results: The type of liver injury was divided into three groups: hepatocellular type, 14 patients (58.3%); cholestatic type, 4 patients (16.7%); and mixed type, 6 patients (25%). Polygonum multiflorum Thunberg (3 cases) was the most common cause of acute toxic hepatitis, followed by Acanthopanax senticosus (2 cases), pumpkin juice (2 cases), Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz (2 cases), Hovenia dulcis (1 case), Phellinus linteus (1 case), and Artemisia capillaries (1 case). One year survival after liver transplantation was 76%. Conclusion: We identified the herbal preparations leading to acute liver failure. Many patients consider herbal remedies to be completely free of unwanted side effects. However, we found that many herbal products have biological activities that can lead to severe hepatotoxicity.
Research on Poisoning Data Collection using Toxic Exposure Surveillance System: Retrospective Preliminary Survey
Bum-Jin Oh, Won Kim, Gyu-Chong Cho, Hui-Dong Kang, Yoo-Dong Shon, Jae-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Soo Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(1):32-43.   Published online June 30, 2006
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Purpose: Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS) is widely used for poisoning data collection and making a counterplan. But, there were few reports about poisoning data collection using TESS in Korea. The aim was to collect poisoning data using TESS report form and investigate the recognition of emergency physician about the necessity of TESS as preliminary survey. Methods: Retrospectively, we gathered data from hospital records about the patient who admitted hospital emergency room due to poisoning. Date were gathered by paper and/or web client system report form in patients recruited by ICD-10 codes Results: From Jun 2004 to May 2005,3,203 patients were enrolled in 30 hospitals and their mean age was $44.9{pm}20.3years$ old(male: female = 1,565: 1,638). The most frequent site of exposure was their own residence (73.2%, 2,345/3,203) and most of reported patients were older than 20 years(89.7%, 2,871/3,203). Frequent substances involved in poisoning were medication(41.9%) and pesticide(33.3%). Intentional poisoning was 60.7%(1,954). In fatality, overall frequency was 5.1%(162/3,203) and the most frequent route of exposure was ingestion(96.3%, 156/162) and the most frequent substance was pesticide(85.2%, 138/ 162). Antidotes were administered in 202 patients(2-PAM, atropine, antivenin, N-acetylcystein, vitamin K, flumazenil, ethanol, methylene blue, naloxone, calcium compound). 19 of 20 emergency physicians agreed with necessity of TESS. Conclusion: Data collection using TESS report form showed preliminary poisoning events in Korea. Frequent poisoning substance were medication and pesticide. The fatality was mainly related with pesticide ingestion. Many doctors in emergency room recognized the necessity of TESS.
Appropriateness of Labelling Practice for Pesticides in Korea
Bum Jin Oh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Won Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Yoo Dong Shon, Hui Dong Kang, Kyoung Soo Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):71-78.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Purpose: The morbidity of pesticides are largely related with accidental ingestion in human. The four principal ideals of clarity, completeness, conformity and consistency of label are important to make a correct usage and prevent unnecessary health risk. The aim of this study is to evaluate the appropriateness of pesticides labelling practice in Korea. Methods: The photographic label images of pesticide products were gathered through visiting thirteen manufacturers that produce pesticide products in Korea. We scored labelling practice by guidelines of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 1995. Results: From August 2005 to November 2005, we gathered 1,296 label images of pesticide and $58.3{\%}$ (755/1,296) of images were scored by check lists for reviewing label content. The average score of four check list categories was $71.9{pm}2.2$. Each categorical score were $91.7{pm}0.9$ for the information appearing on the label, $31.3{pm}0.0$ for safety precaution, $77.7{pm}2.0$ for instructions for use, $87.0{pm}8.7$ for general configurations. In safety precaution, the sentence of keeping locked up the product and two mandatory safety pictograms were missed in all label images. In general configurations category, there was score difference in product package types between bottle and bag container ($85.1{pm}9.0$ vs. $90.3{pm}7.2$, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Although there was no comparable previous data, the score of safety precaution was lowest than other categories because the two mandatory safety pictograms and locked up warning sentence were missed. In general configurations, the colour contrast was more inappropriate in the labels on bottle than bag container.
Outcomes of Acute Liver Injury from Accidental Mushroom Poisoning
Bum-Jin Oh, Won Kim, Kyoung-Soo Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(2):116-122.   Published online December 31, 2004
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Purpose: Several risk factors related with chronic complications and mortality related with liver injury of mushroom poisoning were reported. But, there were few reports about the long term outcomes. The aim was to evaluate the long term clinical outcomes in mushroom poisoning regarding the risk factors. Methods: Clinical data were reviewed and outcomes were evaluated with medical records and/or telephone interviews. The patients who had one or more risk factors such as markedly elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT), prolonged prothrombin time (PT) were classified into high risk group. Patients had no risk factor classified into low risk group. Results: From June 1989 to December 2003, nineteen mushroom poisoning patients admitted to Asan Medical Center, seven were male, and mean age was $58pm9$ years old. All the patients accidentally ingested and the interval from ingestion to symptom onset was $9pm4$ hours. There were four patients in high risk group, and fifteen in low risk group. In high risk group, peak AST was $2,263.3pm1,303.0IU/L$most prolonged PT was $38.0pm27.4\%$, and stuporous mental status was shown in one patient. In low risk group, laboratory values returned to the normal values but histological evaluation revealed specific features of toxic hepatitis on sixth hospital day. Chronic complications such as persistent or chronic hepatitis, mortality was not occurred during follow up period (from 10 months to 16 years) in both groups. Conclusion: Although the number of patients were small, there were no chronic complications or mortality related with liver injury after mushroom poisoning regardless risk factors of chronic complications and mortality.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology