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Sung-Woo Lee 16 Articles
Changes of Poison Data Characteristics Collected from Telephone Response in 1339 and 119: Discrepancy in Characteristics of Post-toxin Exposure Data Obtained through Telephone Counselling Provided by 1339 and 119
Kwang Hoon Park, Jong Su Park, Sung-Woo Lee, Su-Jin Kim, Kap Su Han, Eui Jung Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):116-121.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.116
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the toxicologic profiles and outcome of poisoned patients by comparing the data obtained through telephone counselling, each provided by emergency medical information center (1339) and emergency dispatch center (119). Methods: We analyzed the telephone-based poison exposure data before and after Seoul 1339 merged to 119. We compared the Seoul 1339 call response data in 2008 with Seoul and Busan 119 call response data between 2014 and 2016. We analyzed the changes in the trend and quality of data obtained, as well as the quality of service provided by each center before and after this reallocation, by comparing the data each obtained through telephone counselling. Results: The data was collected for a total of 2260 toxin exposure related calls made to Seoul 1339 in 2009, and 1657 calls to 119 in Seoul and Busan between 2014 and 2016. Significant difference was observed for age, sex, and reason for exposure to toxic substance between the two groups. Conclusion: After the integration of 1339 with 119, 119 focused on role of field dispatch and hospital transfer, lacking the consulting on drug poisoning. Moreover, data on exposure to toxic substances at the pre-hospital stage indicate that drug information and counseling are missing or unknown. In addition, first aid or follow-up instructions are not provided. Thus, systematic approach and management are required.
Different Characteristics of Toxic Substance/poison Exposure Data that Collected from Pre-hospital Telephone Response and Emergency Department
Su-Jin Kim, Min-Hong Choa, Jong-Su Park, Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2014;12(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2014
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find differences in the demographics of toxic exposed patients and substance between call based poison information data and hospital based poison information data. Methods: Seoul 1339 call-response data were used as call based poison data and toxic related injury surveillance data of the Korean center for disease control and prevention (KCDC) were used as hospital based poison data. Age, sex, the kind of exposed substance, reasons for exposure, and exposure routes were compared between two data sets. We analyzed the presence or not of documentation on the name and amount of exposed substance, symptoms after exposure in call based poison data. Results: Seoul1339 poison data included a total of 2260 information related to toxic exposure and KCDC poison data included 5650 poison cases. There was no difference in sexual distribution. Pediatric exposure and accidental exposure were more common in call based poison data. The most common exposed substances were household products in call based poison data and medicines in hospital based poison data, respectively. Documents regarding amount and time of toxic exposure and symptoms after toxic exposure were not recorded exactly in call based poison data. Conclusion: There were significant differences in age, reasons for toxic exposure, and the kinds of exposed substances. Poison information data from both pre-hospital and hospital must be considered.
Comparison between Emergency Patient Poisoning Cases and the Tox-Info System Database
Hyun-Jong Kim, Yang-Weon Kim, Hyun Kim, Chang-Bae Park, Byung-Hak So, Kyeong-Ryong Lee, Kyung-Woo Lee, Kyung-Won Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Jang-Young Lee, Gyu-Chong Cho, Jun-Ho Cho, Sung-Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2012;10(1):8-14.   Published online June 30, 2012
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Purpose: The Tox-Info system is a poisonous substance information database developed by the Korean National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation. The aim of this study was to estimate the coverage effectiveness of the Tox-Info system by comparing the toxic substances included in the database with the distribution of the toxic substances implicated in the cases of intoxicated patients presenting to emergency departments. The secondary aim of the study was to propose any additional substances that should be added to the database. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients suffering with toxic exposure who had visited any of 12 selected emergency departments in Korea from January 2010 to December 2011. The identified toxic substances were classified into groups including prescription drugs, agricultural chemicals, household products, animals or plants, herbal drugs, and others. We calculated the coverage rate of the Tox-Info database relative to the number of intoxication cases and the type of toxic substances involved. Results: A total of 5,840 intoxicated patient records were collected. Their mean age was $46.6{pm}20.5$ years and 56.2% were female. Of the total intoxication cases, 87.8% of the identified toxic substances were included in the Tox-Info database, while only 41.6% of all of the types of identified toxic substances were included. Broken down by category, 122 prescription drugs, 15 agricultural chemicals, 12 household products, 14 animals or plants and 2 herbal drugs involved in poisoning cases were not included in the Tox-info database. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the clinical usefulness of the Tox-Info system. While 87.8% of the substances involved in the cases were included in the Tox-Info database, the database should be continuously updated in order to include even the most uncommon toxic substances.
Cardiac Toxicity Following a Diphenhydramine Overdose
Sung-Jun Park, Jong-Hak Park, In-Kyung Um, Kyung-Ae Park, Do-Hyoun Kim, Su-Jin Kim, Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2011;9(1):20-25.   Published online June 30, 2011
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Purpose: This study was designed to analyze the contributing factors, as well as the incidence and nature of the cardiac toxicity, in patients presenting with diphenhydramine overdose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the intoxicated patients who presented to the ED of Korea University Anam Hospital from January 2008 to December 2010. Those patients who visited due to a diphenhydramine overdose were selected and the following features were recorded for analysis: the general characteristics, vital signs, the amount of ingested diphenhydramine, the time interval from ingestion to presentation, the coingested drugs (if any), the toxicities and the ECG findings. Cardiac toxicity, while defined mainly in terms of the temporary ECG changes such as QTc prolongation, right axis deviation, QRS widening, high degree AV block and ischemic changes, also encompassed cardiogenic shock, which is a clinical finding. Results: A total of eighteen patients were enrolled. Of the eighteen patients, eight had ingested diphenhydramine only, while ten had ingested other drugs in addition to diphenhydramine. The most commonly observed toxicity following diphenhydramine overdose included cardiac toxicity (78%). Cardiac toxicity was observed in all the patients who presented to the emergency department 2 hours after ingestion. The patients with QTc prolongation turned out to have ingested significantly larger amounts of diphenhydramine. Conclusion: QTc prolongation and right axis deviation were common findings for the patients with a diphenhydramine overdose. QTc prolongation was more likely to occur with ingesting larger amounts of diphenhydramine. Close monitoring is mandatory for patients who have ingested large amounts of diphenhydramine to prevent such potentially lethal cardiac toxicity.
Availability of Toxicologic Screening Tests in the Emergency Department
In-Kyung Um, Jong-Su Park, Kap-Su Han, Han-Jin Cho, Sung-Hyuck Choi, Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2011;9(1):26-29.   Published online June 30, 2011
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Purpose: The role of a point of care test (POCT) is currently becoming important when treating patients and making decisions in the emergency department. It also plays a role for managing patients presenting with drug intoxication. But the availability of the test has not yet been studied in Korea. Therefore, we investigated the utility and the availability of POCT for drug screening used in the emergency department. Methods: This was a retrospective study for those patients with drug intoxication between January 2007 and December 2010 in an urban emergency department. Results: Between the study period, 543 patients were examined with a Triage$^{(R)}$-TOX Drug Screen. Among those, 248 (45.7%) patients showed negative results and 295 (54.3%) patients showed positive results. The sensitivity of the test for benzodiazepine, acetaminophen and tricyclic antidepressants were 85.9%, 100%, 79.2%, respectively. Conclusion: POCT of drug screening in emergency department showed good accuracy especially in patient with benzodiazepine, acetaminophen and tricyclic antidepressant intoxication. Therefore, it can be useful diagnostic tool for the management of intoxicated patients.
Corrosive Injury Due to Edible Vinegar
Do-Hyoun Kim, Sung-Woo Lee, In NamGung, Jong-Hak Park, Su-Jin Kim, Yun-Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2011;9(1):34-38.   Published online June 30, 2011
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Vinegar is a very popular ingredient used in many cuisines. It is also known for its beneficial health, beauty and possible weight-loss properties. The authors report on a patient who presented to the emergency department with unstable vital signs complaining of generalized abdominal pain after ingestion of 450 ml of apple cider vinegar. We documented a case of corrosive gastrointestinal injury with persistent metabolic acidosis occurring after ingesting apple cider vinegar with an acetic acid concentration of 12~14%. Toxic damage to the liver and kidney were also observed, peaking on post-ingestion day 3. The patient received supportive care and hemoperfusion for three days without much clinical improvement and died in the seventh day of intensive care due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and multi organ failure. Edible vinegar, when taken in large amounts, is capable of inducing corrosive injuries of the GI tract as well as severe systemic toxicities, such as metabolic acidosis. Safety precautions regarding vinegar deserve more public attention and clinicians also should be astute enough to recognize the potential damage accompanying vinegar ingestion.
Analysis of Patients with Acute Industrial Toxic Exposure at an Emergency Department in an Industrial Complex
Jun-Hyun Shin, Sung-Woo Moon, Seung-Won Baek, Sung-Ik Lim, Young-Hun Yoon, Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(2):117-122.   Published online December 31, 2008
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Purpose: Surveys on poisoning usually involves intoxication rather than inhalation, skin contact, etc. Therefore, we examined the characteristics of patients who visited the emergency department in an industrial complex after acute industrial exposure to toxic materials. Methods: Medical records of patients exposed to toxic materials in the work places from April, 2006, to March, 2008, were analyzed retrospectively. Inhalation patients due to fire were excluded. Results: Subjects included 66 patients, with a mean age of $35.4{pm}10.9$ years, mostly men (91%). Toxicity occurred in 51 patients (77%) by contact, 15 patients (23%) by inhalation, and none by oral ingestion. For toxic materials, 10 patients were exposed to hydrofluoric acid, 8 to hydrochloric acid, 7 to sodium hydroxide, 7 to metals, and others. The face and hands were the most frequent exposure site by contact. Most exposures were caused by accidents, with 29 cases (42%) exposed because of carelessness or not wearing protective equipment. Most complaints were pain on exposure site, but 7 of the inhalation patients complained of dyspnea. The majority of patients with contact exposure were discharged after wound care or observation. After inhalation exposure, 1 patient died and 5 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. Conclusion: Major causes of workplace exposure were not wearing protective equipment or carelessness. Although contact exposures are usually benign, cautious observation and management are required in patients with inhalation exposure.
Clinical Implication of Acetylcholinesterase in Acute Organophosphate Poisoning
Hoon Kim, Seung-Baik Han, Jun-Sig Kim, Mi-Jin Lee, Joon-Seok Park, Woon-Yong Kwon, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):25-31.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Purpose: Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning may be monitored by measuring the acetylcholinesterase (AChE). It is important to assess severity and establish prognostic tests in the early stage of OP poisoning. The aim of this study was to look at the relationship between various clinical aspects of the OP poisoning, prognostic indicators of OP poisoning including Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3, and the associated changes in AChE levels. Methods: Clinical data and initial AChE levels from thirty-seven patients with OP poisoning were prospectively reviewed from 12 teaching hospitals in South Korea from August 2005 to July 2006. Clinical manifestations at the time of arrival such as miosis, respiratory abnormality, salivation, urinary incontinence, GCS score, AVPU scale, need for intubation, and mechanical ventilation requirements were recorded. SAPS 3 was calculated using clinical data and laboratory results. Results: The median level of AChE was 9.8 (1.3-53.6) U/gHb. There was no significant difference in AChE levels between the groups with and without cholinergic symptoms. The median level of AChE of the patients who required intubation and those who did not were 3.5 U/gHb and it 19.7 U/gHb respectively (Mann-Whitney test; p<0.001). The AChE levels were also significantly different (p=0.007) in patients who needed mechanical ventilation compared to those who did not with AChE levels found to be 3.1 U/gHb and it was 14.8 U/gHb, respectively. Level of consciousness assessed using the AVPU scale was correlated with AChE levels (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.013). GCS score were correlated with AChE levels (p=0.007, Spearman's rho = 0.454). In addition, the lower the level of initial AChE, the longer the ICU stay (p=0.029, Spearman's rho=-0.380). SAPS 3 was inversely correlated with the initial AChE (p<0.001, Spearman's rho=-0.633). Conclusion: In the acute OP poisoning, low AChE levels appear to help indicate the severity of poisoning. The initial AChE level may be a useful prognostic parameter for acute OP poisoning.
Clinical Characteristics of Acute Dichlorvos Poisoning in Korea
Mi-Jin Lee, Joon-Seok Park, Woon-Yong Kwon, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):9-15.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Purpose: Dichlorvos has been in widespread use as an organophosphate (OP) insecticide compound. The purpose of this study was to access the epidemiology and clinical features of dichlorvos in Korea. Methods: This was a 38 multi-center prospective study of dichlorvos poisoning using surveys, a structural reporting system and review of hospital records from August 2005 to July 2006. A total of 54 patients with acute dichlorvos poisoning on a national basis were enrolled. We analyzed the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical manifestations of dichlorvos poisoning. In addition, the clinical features of dichlorvos poisoning were compared with others OP compounds. Results: During the study period, compounds involving pure OP poisoning were dichlorvos (22.7%), methidathion (8.4%), and phosphamidon (6.7%). In acute dichlorvos poisoning, all ingestion routes were oral. Intentional poisoning involved 74.1% of cases. The common initial complaints involved gastrointestinal (64.8%), systemic (61.1%), central or peripheral nervous system (53.7%), and respiratory symptoms (50.0%). The median arrival time to hospital after dichlorvos poisoning was 2.6 hours and mean hospitalization duration was 7.1 days. 2-PAM was administered in 35 patients in mean doses of 6.3 g/day intravenously. Atropine was administered in 30 patients with a mean dose of 62.8 mg/day (maximal 240 mg/day). Overall mortality rate for dichlorvos poisonings were 14.8% (8/54). Immediate causes for death included sudden cardiac arrest or ventricular dysrhythmias (50%), multi-organ failure (25%), acute renal failure (12.5%), and unknown causes (12.5%). Conclusion: When compared to previous reports, dichlorvos poisoning displayed relatively moderate severity. The presence of a lower GCS score, altered mental status, serious dysrhythmias, systemic shock, acute renal failure, and respiratory complications upon presentation were associated with a more serious and fatal poisoning.
Clinical Aspects of the Chlorophenoxy Herbicide Intoxicated Patients
Young-Soon Cho, Ho-Jung Kim, Bum-Jin Oh, Joo-Hyun Suh, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Hyung-Keun Roh, Hoon Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(2):112-118.   Published online December 31, 2007
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Purpose: There have been relatively few reports of chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning. The purpose of this study is to analyze the general characteristics and clinical aspects of the chlorophenoxy herbicide intoxicated patients in Korea. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the chlorophenoxy herbicide intoxicated patients visiting to the 38 emergency medical centers in Korea from the 1 August 2005 to the 31 July 2006. Results: 24 patients were enrolled during the study periods. Their mean age was 55.7 years old. The median amount of the chlorophenoxy herbicide intoxicated is 150 mL. The most frequent location where the patients obtained and took the chlorophenoxy herbicide was their home. Frequent compounds involving chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning were dicamba(66.7%), MCPP(16.7%), and 2,4-D(12.5%). The most common symptom of the patients was confusion and vomiting. 16 patients(66.7%) intended to suicide. 3 patients out of 24 patients(13.0%) were died. Conclusion: There were 24 patients intoxicated by the chlorophenoxy herbicide during the study periods. The mortality rate was 13.0%. The suicidal attempts and the numbers of death involving chlorophenoxy herbicide were high in Korea.
The Study of Pyrethroid Intoxication: The basis of Agrichemical Intoxication Survey in 2005
Ah-Jin Kim, Kyung-Hwan Kim, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(2):99-105.   Published online December 31, 2007
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Purpose: Pyrethroid is an insecticide that produces moderate intoxication in mammals, with neither exposure to skin nor inhalation resulting in severe systemic manifestations. In 2005 we made a nationwide survey of agrichemical human intoxication. The object of this study is to analyze pyrethroid intoxications based on the 2005 survey. Methods: We prospectively collected data from 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2006 by a standard investigation protocol. We analyzed demographic data, exposure data (cause, amount, ingredients), clinical features, and courses. Results: A total of 125 cases of pyrethroid intoxication were surveyed. The mean patient age was $56.78{pm}16.158$ years old, and the mean amount ingested was $121.85{pm}110.732ml$. Patients were classified into four severity groups according to symptoms and mental status: the asymptomatic group (27 patients, 21.6%), the mild symptom group (48, 38.4%), the moderate symptom group (21, 16.8%), and the severe symptom group (7, 5.6%). There were statistically significant differences in mental status, severity, and mean ICU days between two groups. Admission days by severity grade for the asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe symptom groups were $5.49{pm}16.051,;3.65{pm}4.143,;4.59{pm}3.335,;and;8.14{pm}7.199days$, respectively (p=0.047). Conclusion: Nationwide surveillance was extremely telling in uncovering a high frequency of agrichemical intoxication in Korea. In pyrethroid intoxication, severity grading can be a useful prognostic tool.
Characteristics and Prognostic Factors of Carbamate Poisoning in Korea
Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Gil-Joon Suh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and the prognostic factors of carbamate poisoned patients who visited emergency departments. Methods: From August 2005 to July 2006, we investigated the demographic feature, dose of exposure, time of exposure, alcohol intake, route of exposure, reason of exposure, site of exposure, pre-existing medical condition, time from exposure to emergency department (ED), transfer from other hospitals, vital sign at ED arrival, symptom or sign at ED arrival, and result of care of the patients who visited the ED of thirty-eight hospitals in Korea. According to the result of care, we divided the patients into two groups, the survival and the dead. To evaluated the prognostic factors, we calculated the odds ratio of each factor for the survival. Results: Among the sixty-eight patients, fifty-five patients (80.9%) were survival and thirteen patients (19.1%) were dead. The patients in the dead were older than the patients in the survival. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of the patients in the dead was lower than the GCS in the survival. The odds ratio of the GCS at ED arrival for the survival was 1.58 (95% CI; 1.23-2.05). Other factors showed no statistical significances. Conclusion: The GCS at emergency department arrival was the prognosis factor of the carbamate poisoned patients who visited emergency departments. If the carbamate poisoned patients showed altered mentalities, they should be provided intensive care, immediately.
Clinical Aspects of the Organochlorine Intoxicated Patients
Jun-Ho Cho, Bum-Jin Oh, Joo-Hyun Suh, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Hyung-Keun Roh, In-Cheol Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):15-20.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: To analyze the general characteristics and clinical aspects of the organochlorine intoxicated patients in Korea. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the organochlorine intoxicated patients visiting to the 38 emergency medical centers in Korea from the 1, Aug. 2005 to the 31, Jul. 2006. Results: There were 38 patients intoxicated by the organochlorine during the study periods. The mean age of patients was 55.1 years old. The mean amount of the organochlorine intoxicated is 246.1 mL. The most frequent place where the patients got and took the organochlorine was their home. Twenty eight patients(73.7%) intended to suicide. Nine patients out of 38 patients(23.7%) were died and they all intended to suicide. Conclusion: There were 38 patients intoxicated by the organochlorine during the study periods. The suicidal attempts and the number of the dead were higher in Korea than the developed countries.
Organophosphate-Pyrethroid Mixtures Poisoning
Dae-Young Hong, Kwang-Je Baek, Kyeong-Ryong Lee, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Jun-Sig Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):21-26.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: Owing to organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures are widely used, suicidal or unintentional poisoning is common. But there have been relatively few reports of poisoning. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the difference of the severity and toxicity between organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures poisoning and single organophosphate poisoning. Methods: From August 2005 to July 2006, 65 patients presented with organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures poisoning to emergency medical center. Date were gathered by report form it was drawn up. Results: 65 patients were enrolled in 28 hospitals and their mean age was $56.5{pm}16.2$ years old. The most common cause of poisoning was suicide, in 52 cases(80%). Chlorpyrifos-cypermethrin, malathion-esfenvalerate were the most frequent chemicals involved, and the mean ingestion amount was 135.4ml. The most common symptom of the patients was nausea/vomiting, in 16 patients. The average GCS score was 13. The mean ICU stay was $4.4{pm}5.2$ days, and mortality was 3.1%. Conclusion: The severity and toxicity of organophosphate-pyrethroid mixture poisoning were lower than that of single organophosphate poisoning.
Clinical Characteristics of Acute Pure Organophosphate Compounds Poisoning - 38 Multi-centers Survey in South Korea -
Mi-Jin Lee, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):27-35.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: Organophosphate (OP) compounds insecticides are the most commonly associated with serious human toxicity all over the world. The aim of this study was to identify sociocultural factors that contribute to high incidence of pure OP poisoning and prevent OP poisoning in order to reduce the factors responsible for deaths in South Korea. Methods: This is the 38 multi-centers survey and prospective study of pure OP poisoning by structural reporting system and hospital records from August 2005 to July 2006. 238 patients with acute pure OP poisoning were enrolled. We collected patient information regarding poisoning, clinical, and demographic features. Results: The mean age was $55.32{pm}17.3$ years old. The most frequent site of exposure was their own residence(85.7%). Frequent compounds involving pure OP poisoning were dichlorvos(22.7%), methidathion(8.4%), and phosphamidon(6.7%). Intentional poisoning was 77.9%. The most frequently route of exposure was ingestion(94.5%). The mean arrival time to hospital after poisoning was 12.7 hours and mean hospitalization duration was 12.9 days. 2-PAM was administered to 101 patients in mean doses of 6.3 g/day intravenously. Atropine was administered to 81 patients in mean doses of 74.6 mg/day (maximal 910 mg/day). The presence of lower level of GCS score, respiratory complications, hypotension, acute renal failure, and serious dysrhythmia was associated with serious and fatal poisoning. Overall final mortality in pure OP poisoning was 9.7%(23/238). Conclusion: This study highlights the problem of pure OP poisoning in South Korea as a basic national survey. Futhermore this might help the establishment of strict policies availability of OP and the statistics of OP poison exposure in South Korea.
Epidemiology and Clinical Analysis of Poisoning of Glufosinate Herbicide - Multicenter Study -
Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):36-42.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: To assess the epidemiology and the clinical features of Glufosinate herbicide in Korea. Methods: Data was prospectively collected during 1 year since August 2005 from 38 hospital in Korea. We analyzed the epidemiologic characters and clinical manifestations of Glufosinate poisoning. In addition, the characteristics of patients with severe central nervous system toxicity were separately analyzed to find poor prognosis relating factors. Results: During study periods, there were 715 persons of poisoning of herbicides and insecticides. 6.3% (45 persons) of the agricultural chemicals poisoning had Glufosinate poisoning. There were 36 cases of suicide attempts and 7 cases of accidental exposure, The major of poisoning route was oral ingestion (44 cases). 28.9 % of the study patients had not toxic symptoms. The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal symptoms relating surfactant irritation. 67.7% of central nervous symptoms occurred lately. 10 persons showed severe central nervous system toxicity. 4 persons of them showed poor outcomes (1 death, 3 hopeless discharged). Complications of respiratory failure and renal failure related with poor outcome. Conclusion: Majority of patients ingested Glufosinate for suicide attempt. 22.2% of patients with Glufosinate poisoning showed delayed serious central nervous system toxicity. Early supportive care of altered mentality may prevent late respiratory complications and improve the outcomes.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology