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Mi Jin Lee 12 Articles
The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):1-16.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00007
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose: This study investigated the actual incidence of acute poisoning in Korea on a nationwide scale, with the aim of laying the groundwork for future initiatives in prevention, strategic antidote distribution, and the development of effective emergency treatment for acute poisoning.
Methods
The study analyzed data from 3,038 patients who presented to emergency departments with poisoning-related conditions from June 1, 2022 to December 31, 2022 at 10 sites in nine cities across the country. We extracted data on general characteristics of the poisoning cases, including demographic characteristics (age and gender), place of exposure, reason for poisoning, route of exposure, and the substance involved in the poisoning incident. Age-related patterns in reasons for poisoning, medical outcomes, frequent and primary poisoning substances, and deaths were also analyzed.
Results
The population analyzed in our study was predominantly female, with women constituting 54.74% of all cases. Among infants and children, non-intentional poisoning due to general accidents was the most common cause, accounting for 71.43% of cases. Conversely, suicidal poisoning was more prevalent among teenagers and adults over 20. Fifty-two patients died during the study period, with males comprising approximately two-thirds (67.31%) of these fatalities. Pesticides were the most common poisoning substance among those who died, accounting for 55.77% of such cases. Notably, a significant majority of the victims were elderly individuals aged 60 and above.
Conclusion
This study holds substantial significance, since it represents the first comprehensive investigation and analysis of the symptoms, treatment, and causes of death due to poisoning in Korea on a national scale. By substantially expanding the range and types of poisonous substances examined, we were able to more precisely identify the characteristics and clinical patterns of poisoning cases nationwide.
The Significance of the Strong Ion Gap in Predicting Acute Kidney Injury and In-hospital Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Poisoning
Tae Jin Sim, Jae Wan Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Haewon Jung, Jungbae Park, Kang Suk Seo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):72-82.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.72
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: A high anion gap (AG) is known to be a significant risk factor for serious acid-base imbalances and death in acute poisoning cases. The strong ion difference (SID), or strong ion gap (SIG), has recently been used to predict in-hospital mortality or acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This study presents a comprehensive acid-base analysis in order to identify the predictive value of the SIG for disease severity in severe poisoning. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on acute poisoning patients treated in the emergency intensive care unit (ICU) between December 2015 and November 2020. Initial serum electrolytes, base deficit (BD), AG, SIG, and laboratory parameters were concurrently measured upon hospital arrival and were subsequently used along with Stewart's approach to acid-base analysis to predict AKI development and in-hospital death. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and logistic regression analysis were used as statistical tests. Results: Overall, 343 patients who were treated in the intensive care unit were enrolled. The initial levels of lactate, AG, and BD were significantly higher in the AKI group (n=62). Both effective SID [SIDe] (20.3 vs. 26.4 mEq/L, p<0.001) and SIG (20.2 vs. 16.5 mEq/L, p<0.001) were significantly higher in the AKI group; however, the AUC of serum SIDe was 0.842 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.799-0.879). Serum SIDe had a higher predictive capacity for AKI than initial creatinine (AUC=0.796, 95% CI=0.749-0.837), BD (AUC=0.761, 95% CI=0.712-0.805), and AG (AUC=0.660, 95% CI=0.607-0.711). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that diabetes, lactic acidosis, high SIG, and low SIDe were significant risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Conclusion: Initial SIDe and SIG were identified as useful predictors of AKI and in-hospital mortality in intoxicated patients who were critically ill. Further research is necessary to evaluate the physiological nature of the toxicant or unmeasured anions in such patients.
Analysis of Poisoning Patients Using 2017-18 ED Based Injury in-depth Surveillance Data
Jiyoon Koh, Woochan Jeon, Hyunggoo Kang, Yang Weon Kim, Hyun Kim, Bum Jin Oh, Mi Jin Lee, Byeong Jo Chun, Sung Phil Chung, Kyung Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):85-93.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.85
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The annual statistics for poisoning are reported based on the data from poison control centers in many advanced countries. In 2016 a study was conducted to analyze the 2016 Korea Poisoning status. This study was conducted to make a better annual report for poisoning statistics in Korea from a 2017-2018 national representative database. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of poisoning patients based on the data from an emergency department (ED) based injury in-depth surveillance project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017-2018. Bite or sting injuries were not included. Results: A total of 17714 patients presented to 23 EDs because of poisoning. Adults above 20 years old age accounted for 84.6% of the population, while the proportion of intentional poisoning was 60.8%. The poisoning substance presented in the ED were therapeutic drugs (51.2%), gas (20.3%), pesticides (16.4%), and artificial substances (11.4%). Overall, 35% of patients were admitted for further treatment. The mortality was 2.4% (422 cases), and the most common fatal substances in order were carbon monoxide, other herbicides, and paraquat. Conclusion: This study showed the 2017-2018 status of poisoning in Korea. The prognosis is different from the cause of poisoning and the initial mental state of the patient. Therefore, appropriate methods for preventing poisoning and therapeutic plans in specific situations are needed.

Citations

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  • Status and trends of medical expenditures for poisoning patients
    Eung Nam Kim, Soyoung Jeon, Hye Sun Lee, Sung Phil Chung
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 24.     CrossRef
  • The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
    Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Prioritising Risk Factors for Prescription Drug Overdose among Older Adults in South Korea: A Multi-Method Study
    Eun-Hae Lee, Ju-Ok Park, Joon-Pil Cho, Choung-Ah Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(11): 5948.     CrossRef
Discrepancies and Validation of Ethanol Level Determination with Osmolar Gap Formula in Patients with Suspected Acute Poisoning
Haewon Jung, Mi Jin Lee, Jae Wan Cho, Jae Yun Ahn, Changho Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(2):47-57.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.2.47
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Purpose: Osmolar gap (OG) has been used for decades to screen for toxic alcohol levels. However, its reliability may vary due to several reasons. We validated the estimated ethanol concentration formula for patients with suspected poisoning and who visited the emergency department. We examined discrepancies in the ethanol level and patient characteristics by applying this formula when it was used to screen for intoxication due to toxic levels of alcohol. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 153 emergency department cases to determine the measured levels of toxic ethanol ingestion and we calculated alcohol ingestion using a formula based on serum osmolality. Those patients who were subjected to simultaneous measurements of osmolality, sodium, urea, glucose, and ethanol were included in this study. Patients with exposure to other toxic alcohols (methanol, ethylene glycol, or isopropanol) or poisons that affect osmolality were excluded. OG (the measured-calculated serum osmolality) was used to determine the calculated ethanol concentration. Results: Among the 153 included cases, 114 had normal OGs (OG≤14 mOsm/kg), and 39 cases had elevated OGs (OG>14). The mean difference between the measured and estimated (calculated ethanol using OG) ethanol concentration was -9.8 mg/dL. The 95% limits of agreement were -121.1 and 101.5 mg/dL, and the correlation coefficient R was 0.7037. For the four subgroups stratified by comorbidities and poisoning, the correlation coefficients R were 0.692, 0.588, 0.835, and 0.412, respectively, and the mean differences in measurement between the measured and calculated ethanol levels were -2.4 mg/dL, -48.8 mg/dL, 9.4 mg/dL, and -4.7 mg/dL, respectively. The equation plots had wide limits of agreement. Conclusion: We found that there were some discrepancies between OGs and the calculated ethanol concentrations. Addition of a correction factor for unmeasured osmoles to the equation of the calculated serum osmolality would help mitigate these discrepancies.
Different Clinical Courses for Poisoning with WHO Hazard Class Ia Organophosphates EPN, Phosphamidon, and Terbufos in Humans
Jong Gu Mun, Jeong Mi Moon, Mi Jin Lee, Byeong Jo Chun
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):1-8.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.1
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Purpose: Extremely hazardous pesticides are classified as World Health Organization (WHO) hazard class Ia. However, data describing the clinical course of WHO class Ia OP (organophosphate) poisonings in humans are very scarce. Here, we compare the clinical features of patients who ingested hazard class Ia OPs. Methods: This retrospective observational case study included 75 patients with a history of ingesting ethyl p-nitrophenol thio-benzene phosphonate (EPN), phosphamidon, or terbufos. The patients were divided according to the chemical formulation of the ingested OP. Data regarding mortality and the development of complications were collected and compared among groups. Results: There were no differences in the baseline characteristics and severity scores at presentation between the three groups. No fatalities were observed in the terbufos group. The fatality rates in the EPN and phosphamidon groups were 11.8% and 28.6%, respectively. Patients poisoned with EPN developed respiratory failure later than those poisoned with phosphamidon and also tended to require longer mechanical ventilatory support than phosphamidon patients. The main cause of death was pneumonia in the EPN group and hypotensive shock in the phosphamidon group. Death occurred later in the EPN group than in the phosphamidon group. Conclusion: Even though all three drugs are classified as WHO class Ia OPs (extremely hazardous pesticides), their clinical courses and the related causes of death in humans varied. Their treatment protocols and predicted outcomes should therefore also be different based on the chemical formulation of the OP.
Analysis of Poisoning Patients Using 2016 ED Based Injury in-depth Surveillance Data
Sung Phil Chung, Mi Jin Lee, Hyunggoo Kang, Bum Jin Oh, Hyun Kim, Yang Weon Kim, Byeong Jo Chun, Kyung Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):86-93.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.86
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Some advanced countries have reported annual statistics for poisoning based on data from poison control centers. This study was conducted to propose a baseline format and statistics of poisoning in Korea from a national representative database. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of poisoning patients based on data from an emergency department (ED) based injury in-depth surveillance project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2016. Bite or sting injuries were not included. Variables related to poisoning were summarized using a similar format as the National Poison Data System in the United States. Results: A total of 7,820 poisoning patients presented to 23 EDs. Adults ${geq}20$ years accounted for 84% of the population, while the proportion of intentional poisoning was 59.4%. The most common poisoning substances were therapeutic drugs (45%), gas (21%), pesticides (15%), and artificial toxic substances (13%). Overall, 34.5% of patients were admitted for further treatment. The mortality was 3.2% (248 cases), and the most common causative substances were carbon monoxide, glyphosate, and paraquat, in order. Conclusion: This study showed the recent status of poisoning in Korea. However, a comprehensive poisoning registry based on poison control centers may be required to provide more accurate national statistics in the future.
General Characteristics for Poisoning-Induced Transient or Sustained Hyperammonemia
Soo Hyung Lee, Hong In Park, Michael Sung Choe, Dong Wook Je, Woo Young Nho, Seong Hun Kim, Mi Jin Lee, Jae Yun Ahn, Sung Bae Moon, Dong Eun Lee, Jung Bae Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(2):136-143.   Published online December 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2016.14.2.136
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Purpose: In patients with altered mentality caused by drugs or unknown causes, ammonia is checked to facilitate differential diagnosis or diagnose hepatic coma. This helps early prevention and treatment of brain damage due to hyperammonemia. This study was conducted to evaluate clinical characteristics of intoxicated adult patients with hyperammonemia. Methods: We evaluated 95 patients with hyperammonemia among intoxicated patients above the age of 15 who visited our ED from January 2013 to December 2015. We analyzed the demographic characteristics and type of poisoning substance, reason for ingestion, toxicological characteristics such as elapsed time from ingestion to hospital visit, lab, clinical progression and complications. Data were evaluated using the student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, and Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test for frequency analysis of categorical variables. Results: When compared to healthy individuals, patients with hyperammonemia showed statistical significance on their SOFA score (p=0.016) and poison severity score (p<0.001). Additionally, patients with hyperammonemia showed significantly different initial serum AST level (p=0.012) and maximum serum AST level during the hospital stay (p=0.026) when compared to healthy individuals. Moreover, individuals with sustained hyperammonemia compared to transient hyperammonemia showed clinically significant SOFA scores (p<0.001), poison severity scores (p=0.007), mortality rates in the ICU (p=0.021), as well as different duration of hospital stay (p=0.037), serum creatinine level (p=0.002), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0.025), and serum myoglobin (p=0.015). Conclusion: Most poisoning-induced hyperammonemia cases were transient and recovered without special treatment. Therefore, hyperammonemia is almost non-specific among poisoning patients.
Application of Poisoning aBIG score for Prediction of Fatal Severity in Acute Adult Intoxications
Michael Sung Choe, Jae Yun Ahn, In Gu Kang, Mi Jin Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2014;12(1):14-21.   Published online June 30, 2014
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Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop a new scoring tool that is comprehensively applicable and predicts fatality within 24 h of intoxication. Methods: This was a cohort study conducted in two emergency medical centers from 2011 to 2012. We identified factors associated with severe/fatality. Through a discriminant analysis, we devised the aBIG (age, Base deficit, Infection, and Glasgow coma scale) score. To compare the ability of aBIG to predict intoxication severity with that of previous scoring systems such as APACHE II, MODS, SAPS IIe, and SOFA, we determined the receiver operating characteristic curves of each variable in predicting severe-to-fatal toxicity. Results: Compared with the mild/moderate toxicity group (n=211), the severe/fatal group (n=143) had higher incidences of metabolic acidosis, infection, serious mental change, QTc prolongation and hepato-renal failure. Age, base deficit, infection-WBC count, and Glasgow Coma Scale were independently associated with severe/fatal poisoning. These variables were combined into the poisoning "aBIG" score [$0.28{ imes}$Age group+$0.38{ imes}WBC$ count/$10^3+0.52{ imes}$Base deficit+$0.64{ imes}$(15-GCS)], which were each calculated to have an area under the curve of 0.904 (95% confidence interval: 0.868-0.933). The aBIG poisoning score had an equivalent level of severity predictability as APACHE II and a superior than MODS, SOFA, and SAPS IIe. Conclusion: We developed a simplified scoring system using the four variables of age, base deficit, infected leukocytosis, and GCS. The poisoning aBIG score was a simple method that could be performed rapidly on admission to evaluate severity of illness and predict fatal severity in patients with acute intoxications.
Trends Analysis of Suicidal Poisoning in Korea- Comparison before and after the IMF Crisis and the Economic Recession
Won Jae Lee, Kyu Nam Park, Seung Pil Choi, Mi Jin Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(1):33-39.   Published online June 30, 2005
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Purpose: Nowadays the Korean society is in the center of time of the social change. Because of dissociation of traditional family, IMF (International Monetary Fund) crisis and economic recession, the mortality rate of suicidal attempts are increasing annually. The majority of suicidal attempts were by poisoning considering the characteristics of korean society. Therefore we studied to find out the characteristics of suicidal poisoning before and after social economic stress, and to suggest the direction for the proper management. Methods: We reviewed medical records of 547 patients of suicide by poisoning who visited the emergency medical centers of St. Mary's hospitals from 1997 to 2004. For the annual trends analysis, we analyzed the demographic and toxicologic data of these patients compared with before and after IMF crisis (1998) and the economic recession ($2003~2004$). Results: At the time of IMF and the economic recession, the number of suicidal poisoning increased, especially in fifth decade. The refusal rate of toxicological emergency treatment increased. Also the mortality rate and the admission rate to ICU (Intensive Care Unit) increased during the same period. In the result of the comparison analysis, clinical severity and mortality of social problem group were higher. However they couldn't be treated appropriately because of financial problem and the family indifference. Conclusion: At the economic recession period, the severity of suicidal poisoned patients was high. But the refusal rate of toxicologic treatment also increased, so the patients had lost the chance for proper toxicologic treatment. Therefore they would be supported by medical institution and public health.
Suicidal Poisoning Methods of Physicians and Medical Related Personnels
Mi Jin Lee, Hae Kwan Park, Kyu Nam Park, Seung Pil Choi, Won Jae Lee, Se Kyung Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(2):123-128.   Published online December 31, 2004
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Purpose: In recent review of physician suicides] the relative risk of physicians is higher than the general population. The majority of physician suicide were by poisoning. The purpose of this study was to analyse the medical personnels with suicide by poisoning compared with the general population. Methods: We reviewed medical records of 15 medical related personnels with suicide by poisoning who visited the emergency medical centers of St. Mary's and Kangnam St. Mary's hospitals from March 1998 to Aug 2004. For the comparison with general population in analysis] the collected data was acquired from medical records of 677 intoxicated patients in St. Mary's Hospital during the same period. Results: Fifteen suicides of physicians (n=7), nurses (n=4), medical students (n=2), pharmacist (n=1) and medical assistant technician (n=1) was evaluated with regard to the method of poisoning. Preferred methods were ingestion of medications orally ($54\%$) and by infusion/injection ($46\%$). The results were compared with the general population group (n=677: oral ingestion of medications $98\%$, inhalation $1.6\%$). Intoxications by infusion/injection predominated more clearly in physicians than in the total collective. Conclusion: Comparing with the general population, the tendency to a method of suicidal poisoning being typical of the profession rises among physicians and related occupations with the degree of specialization, caused by increasing knowledge, easier access to appropriate drugs and methods.
A Case Report of Glacial Acetic Acid Ingestion Complicated with Hepatic Necrosis
Yeon Young Kyong, Mi Jin Lee, Seung Pil Choi, Kyu Nam Park, Won Jae Lee, Se Kyung Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(1):23-26.   Published online June 30, 2004
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Caustic ingestion can produce a progressive and fatal injuries to esophagus, stomach and other organs. Reported exposure to acetic acid results injuries to gastrointestinal tract, hemolysis and disseminated intravascular coagulation is general, but causing hepatic necrosis by direct injuries are rare. A 47-year-old man visited our emergency medical center complaining odynophagia and abdominal pain after ingesting glacial acetic acid ($99\%$) with suicidal ideation. At the time of arrival, the patient complained mild abdominal pain but a few hours later the patient complained severe abdominal pain with markedly elevated liver enzymes. The Abdominal Computerized Tomography showed diffuse gastric wall edema and density of wedge shaped hypodense area in right hepatic dome showing focal hepatic necrosis without significant inflammation. This seems likely to be a direct effect of the noxious agent on hepatocyte involving the portal circulation.
Clinical Analysis of Rhabdomyolysis Complicated with Drug Intoxications
Mi Jin Lee, Hyung Min Kim, Young Min Kim, Won Jae Lee, Byung Hak So, Se Kyung Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2003;1(1):27-33.   Published online June 30, 2003
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Purpose: According as the accessibility about drugs becomes various, the occurrence of drug intoxication is increasing. Since report that doxylamine causes rhabdomyolysis often, drug-induced rhabdomyolysis is one of the most important complications in patients with drug intoxication. Acute renal failure (ARF)'s availability is important to the management in rhabdomyolysis, but report about rhabdomyolysis or ARF occurrence for whole intoxicated drugs is lacking up to now. Methods: This research did to 61 patient who had rhabdomyolysis of drug intoxication. First, object patients were divided into two gruops: doxylamine-ingested (Group I) vs non-doxylamine ingested (Group II). And then we analyzed on the early patient's clinical events and laboratory data. We used ROC curve to recognize'the early clinical factors that could forecast ARF appearance among these patients in addition. Results: Almost rhabdomyolysis was happened by doxylamine in drug intoxication ($55.7\%$). However, as compared to group II, group I showed better clinical course, lesser ARF occurrence and hemodialysis requirement. In group II, time was longer in hospital reaching from intoxication, the ARF occurrence rate was higher ($52.6\%$). Analyzing the ROC curve to useful initial factors, they were creatinine, uric acid and interval time from ingestion to hospital. These cut-off values were 1.44 mg/dL, 6.8 mg/dL and 5 hrs. Sensitivity for ARF estimate was $100\%$, specificity $69-98\%$. Conclusion: Compared to group II, Doxylamine-ingested group showed good clinical course. Creatinine, uric acid, interval time from ingestion to hospital aided in ARF estimate in drug-induced rhabdomyolysis.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology