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Kyu-Nam Park 10 Articles
Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Neonicotinoid Insecticide Poisoning
Jin-Chul Kim, Byung-Hak So, Han-Joon Kim, Hyung-Min Kim, Jung-Ho Park, Se-Min Choi, Kyu-Nam Park, Kyoung-Ho Choi
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2010;8(1):24-29.   Published online June 30, 2010
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Purpose: Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used as they have been proven by experimental studies to have low toxicity to mammals, including humans. As the use of neonicotioids increases, the number of patients with neonicotinoid poisoning has also increased. We conducted a study to investigate the clinical manifestations of neonicotinid poisoning. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the patients who ingested neonicotinids and who visited the emergency department located in Korea from March 2002 to February 2010. We reviewed the patients' age, gender, the amount of exposure, the elapsed time to presentation, the treatment and the outcome. According to the poisoning severity score, we divided the patients with a Poisoning severity score (PSS) of 0 or 1 into the mild/moderate toxicity group and the patients with a PSS of 2 or 3 into the severe/fatal toxicity group. Results: A total of 24 patients were analyzed. The most common clinical manifestations of neonicotinoid insecticide toxicity were gastrointestinal symptoms (66.7%) such as nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain and the others are respiratory symptoms (16.7%), cardiovascular symptoms (12.5%), metabolic imbalance (12.5%), renal dysfunction (8.3%), CNS symptoms (8.3%), and asymptomatic (29.2%). Twenty patients (83.3%) showed mild/moderate toxicity and 4 patients (16.7%) showed fatal conditions such as shock and mutiorgan failure. The mortality rate was 4.2%. In these fatal cases, the patients developed respiratory failure, hypotension, altered mentality and renal failure at the acute stage and they deteriorated to a more serious condition. This severe toxicity was caused by decreased renal excretion of neonicotinid metabolite, and this was improved after hemodialysis. Conclusion: Most patients with neonicotinoid poisoning and who showed mild toxicity usually improved after symptomatic treatment. However, some patients showed significant toxicity with respiratory failure and renal function deterioration, and intensive care needed, including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis.
Epidemiologic Study of Poisoned Patients Who Presented to the Emergency Department of a High end Medical Facility in Seoul 1998~2009
Jae-Hoon Lee, Sang-Hoon Oh, Kyu-Nam Park, Chun-Song Youn, Soo-Hyun Kim, Won-Jung Jeong, Han-Joon Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2010;8(1):7-15.   Published online June 30, 2010
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Purpose: There are an insignificant number of studies done on the demographics of intoxication patients and on the characteristics of toxic exposure on a long term basis in Korea. The objective of our survey is to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of intoxication in a metropolitan emergency department in order to more efficiently manage intoxication patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of intoxication patients who visited the emergency department of a high end medical facility between January, 1998 and June, 2009. We investigated the trend of the substances people became intoxicated with during the study period and we analyzed the age, gender, year and distribution of patients and the outcome of the patients. Results: There were 1544 cases of intoxication during the study period, and the cases made up 0.37% of the total visitors to our emergency department, which is a high end medical facility located in the city. Most of the patients were female (70%) in their twenties and thirties. The most commonly ingested intoxication substances were sedatives, analgesics and pesticides. Unlike in the province, antidepressant abuse is on the rise while pesticide abuse is falling. The overall admission rate was 24.8% and the mortality rate was 1.6%. Pesticides intoxication was the most common cause of death (76%). Pesticides intoxication, a male gender and old age were the most significant fatality-related factors. Conclusion: We think that there is a need to investigate the actual conditions of drug intoxication in the city and prepare measures to prevent drug intoxication.
The Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors of Upper Digestive Lesions that are due to Ingestion of Caustic Material
Young-Sin Kim, Se-Min Choi, Hyung-Min Kim, Chun-Song Youn, Kyu-Nam Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):113-120.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: Though caustic injury of the upper digestive tract can lead to severe sequelae, there are few clinical studies on this subject. This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical characteristics, the endoscopic findings and the risk factors of the upper digestive lesions in patient with caustic ingestion injury. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who ingested caustic materials and who visited to our emergency room from January, 2000 to June, 2009. Results: The most common ingested agent was sodium hypochlorite (44.5%), followed by acetic acid (19.7%), hydrochloric acid (11.7%) and lye (8.0%). Ingestion for suicidal attempt (62.0%) was more frequent than accidental ingestion (30.7%). Grade IIa injury was the most frequent finding on endoscopy of the esophagus and Grade 1 injury was the most frequent finding on endoscopy of the stomach. For the late sequelae, there were 9 cases (6.6%) of esophageal stricture and 2 cases (1.5%) of gastric outlet obstruction. The initial signs and symptoms did not correlate with the development of stricture, but leukocytosis, and grade III injury were related to the risk of developing stricture. Conclusion: Caustic injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is frequently observed on early endoscopy and it can cause significant late sequelae such as stricture. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate these patients with regular follow up endoscopic examinations for the management of late sequelae.
Evaluation of the Risk Factors for Aspiration Pneumonitis Following Drug Intoxication
Dong-Hee Kim, Joo-Suk Oh, Yeon-Young Kyoung, Se-Min Choi, Young-Min Oh, Kyoung-Ho Choi, Kyu-Nam Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):127-136.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: It is known that aspiration pneumonitis is associated with high mortality and morbidity following overdose. However, until now, few domestic studies on this subject have been conducted. The main aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors associated with aspiration pneumonitis in intubated patients following overdose. Methods: Among 654 adult overdosed patients who visited our institution from Jan. 2006 to June 2008, we enrolled 70 intubated patients within 24 hours after their overdose, and we reviewed the medical records to collect the data. This data was processed by univariate analysis, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. P values <0.05 were deemed statistically significant. Results: In our study, a high incidence of pneumonitis was seen in the patients with an older age, a lower GCS and a high poisoning severity score or a high comorbidity score (p<0.05). Compared with the non-pneumonitis group, the pneumonitis group had a higher incidence of intubation (6% vs 61.8%, respectively, p<0.05). The main cause of intubation was a decreased mentality (68.6%). Older age, a high comorbidity score, irrigation without airway protection, relative hypoxemia and hyperkalemia were the risk factors of aspiration pneumonitis in the intubated overdosed patients (p<0.05). Among these factors, age, a high potassium level and airway protection might be significant predictors of aspiration penumonitis (p<0.05). Conclusion: Older age, a high potassium level and irrigation without proper airway protection may be the significant factors that can predict aspiration pneumonitis in patients who are intubated within 24 hours after overdose, although the further investigations on this are needed.
Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Acute Organophosphate Poisoning Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation
Hwang-Jin Shin, Mi-Jin Lee, Kyu-Nam Park, Joon-Seok Park, Seong-Soo Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):32-36.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Purpose: The major complication of acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning is respiratory failure as a result of cholinergic toxicity. Many clinicians find it difficult to predict the optimal time to initiate mechanical ventilation (MV) weaning, and as a result have tended to provide a prolonged ventilator support period. The purpose of this study is to determine any clinical predictors based on patients characteristics and laboratory findings to assist in the optimal timing of mechanical ventilator weaning. Methods: We reviewed medical and intensive care records of 44 patients with acute OP poisoning who required mechanical ventilation admitted to medical intensive care unit between July 1998 and June 2007. Patient information regarding the poisoning, clinical data and demographic features, APACHE II score, laboratory data, and serial cholinesterase (chE) levels were collected. Base on the time period of MV, the patients were divided into two groups: early group (wean time < 7 days, n = 28) and delayed group (${geq}$ 7 days, n = 16). Patients were assessed for any clinical characteristics and predictors associated with the MV weaning period. Results: During the study period, 44 patients were enrolled in this study. We obtained the sensitivity and specificity values of predictors in the late weaning group. APACHE II score and a reciprocal convert of hypoxic index but specificity (83.8%) is only APACHE II score. Also, the chE concentration (rho = -0.517, p = 0.026) and APACHE II score (rho = 0.827, p < 0.001) correlated with a longer mechanical ventilation duration. Conclusion: In patients with acute OP poisoning who required mechanical ventilation, the APACHE II scoring system on a point scale of less than 17 and decrements in cholinesterase levels on 1-3 days were good predictors of delayed MV weaning.
Time-variable Analysis of Cholinesterase Levels in Patients with Severe Organophosphate Poisoning
Han-Joon Kim, Kyu-Nam Park, Mi-Jin Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(2):113-121.   Published online December 31, 2006
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Purpose: Previous studies have reported that plasma cholinesterase (AchE) concentration can serve as a useful prognostic parameter in cases of acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning. However, there has been considerable disagreement regarding the degree of its prognostic value. Earlier cross-sectional and one- time point studies were plagued with methodologic flaws, making it difficult to interpret their results. The purpose of this study was to clarify the prognostic value of time-variable cholinesterase levels and their relationship with clinical outcomes in OP poisoning. Methods: We reviewed medical and intensive care records of patients with acute OP poisoning admitted to our emergency department between March 1998 and Sep 2006. We collected patient information regarding poisoning, clinical, and demographic features. Patients were assessed for clinical outcomes and AchE concentrations on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 and on the final day. Results: During the study period, 58 patients were enrolled in this study. There was a statistically significant difference in the AchE differentials on 1-3 days for patients requiring mechanical ventilation and for patients with mild poisoning (p<0.05). Also, the decrease in the log AchE concentration correlated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation (r=-0.411, p=0.002). Conclusion: In severe OP poising, measurements of time-variable AchE concentrations can be helpful in the prediction of mortality, the development of intermediate syndrome, and duration of mechanical ventilation.
Two Cases of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) Following Pit Viper Envenomation
Suk-Hwan Kim, Se-Min Choi, Young-Min Oh, Kyu-Nam Park, Won-Jae Lee, Kyung-Ho Choi
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(2):137-142.   Published online December 31, 2006
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Our records include two cases of DIC in snakebite patients. One patient, who was 48-years old, was bitten in his left ankle 3 days before admission to our hospital. Initial symptoms were painful swelling, extensive ecchymosis, and persistent bleeding at the bite site. He visited and was admitted to a local hospital, but his condition did not improve with supportive care that included a single dose of antivenin. He was transferred to our hospital. His condition was compatible with DIC. We tried multi-dose antivenin therapy and blood product transfusion. At the seventh hospital day, the patient's symptoms were completely resolved. The other patient, who was 75 years old, was bitten in his right thumb. Initial symptoms were painful swelling of the right arm and persistent bleeding at the bite site, and within minutes of hospital admission, the patient experienced massive hematochezia. We peformed laboratory tests, the results of which were compatible with DIC, and the next day a sigmoidscopic examination showed ischemic colitis. We administered multi-dose antivenin therapy and blood product tranfusion. At the third hospital day mild anemia still existed, but the patient's clinical condition was improved. No signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding were observed. In these two cases, multi-dose antivenin therapy and transfusion effectively resolved symptoms of DIC. Platelet concentrate transfusion was required only for acute thrombocytopenia. After resolution of DIC, platelet counts were returned to normal ranges within a few days. The authors propose that multidose antivenin therapy and coagulation factor transfusion might be useful for improving coagulopathy in snakebite patients.
A Case Report of Saliva-type Hyperamylasemia in Mad Honey Poisoning
Kun-Woo Lee, Kyu-Nam Park, Mi-Jin Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(2):166-169.   Published online December 31, 2006
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Poisonings caused by 'mad honey' are known to occur in response to grayanotoxins, which bind to sodium channels in the cell membrane, increasing membrane sodium permeability and preventing inactivation. Mild symptoms of mad honey intoxication are dizziness, weakness, hypersalivation, nausea, vomiting, and paresthesia. Severe intoxication, however, leads to serious cardiac manifestations such as atrioventricular block, dose-dependent hypotension, bradycardia, and respiratory depression. Atropine and vasoactive drugs improve symptoms of both bradycardia and respiratory rate depression. We report an unusual case of saliva-type hyperamylasemia in a mad honey poisoning patient who developed clinically significant bradycardia. She recovered fully within 3 days following atropine administration and medical treatment.
A Case of Acute Dapsone Poisoning Complicated with Methylene Blue-induced Hemolytic Anemia
Mi-Jin Lee, Kyu-Nam Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(2):170-174.   Published online December 31, 2006
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Methylene blue is a basic thiazine dye frequently used for histologic staining. In clinical toxicology settings, it is also used to treat clinically significant methemoglobinemia. It has dose-dependent oxidation or reduction properties, acting as a reducing agent at lower doses and as an oxidizing agent at higher doses. Hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia are known toxic effects of methylene blue treatment that have been reported clinically. A 42-year-old woman developed significant methemoglobinemia after acute dapsone overdose; she was treated appropriately with intravenous methylene blue in the therapeutic range. The patient's methemoglobin levels returned to normal. However, 2-4 days later she was noted to have rebound methemoglobinemia, hemolytic anemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. A repeat of Coomb's test and other anemia workups were negative. For management of methylene blue-induced hemolytic anemia, she was administered steroid therapy, N-acetylcysteine, and a blood transfusion. She ultimately recovered, and there were no long-term sequelae from the methylene blue poisoning.
Survival Curve Analysis in Patients with Severe Organophosphate Poisoning
Mi-Jin Lee, Kyu-Nam Park, Won-Jae Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):86-92.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Purpose: The main cause of death due to acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning is believed acute respiratory failure caused by cholinergic reactions. Recently, advances in respiratory and intensive care make it possible to maintain the respiratory function of patients with OP poisoning, but the mortality rates remain high. The present study clarified the hemodynamics of patients with acute lethal OP poisoning. The purpose of this study was to analyse the outcomes and predictors of mortality in patients with acute OP poisoning requiring intensive care. Methods: We reviewed medical and intensive care records of patients with acute OP poisoning admitted to emergency department and ICU between March 1998 and Aug 2005. We collected patient information regarding poisoning, clinical, and demographic features. Results: During the study period, 67 subjects treated with intensive care and ventilator management in addition to gastric decontamination standard therapy with atropine and 2-PAM. Of 67 patients, 13 died. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated a steep decline in the cumulative survival to $86.6\%$ during the first week. Mean arterial pressure < 60 mmHg within the first 24 hours was recognized as a poor prognostic indicators among mechanical ventilated patients. Conclusion: Most OP poisoning-related deaths occurred within the first week of poisoning. Mean arterial pressure lower than 60 mmHg might be the best predictor of poor outcome. We speculated that the refractory hypotension is the leading cause of death in patients with lethal OP poisoning that receiving mechanical ventilation and maximal supportive care.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology