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Jae Yun Ahn 3 Articles
Discrepancies and Validation of Ethanol Level Determination with Osmolar Gap Formula in Patients with Suspected Acute Poisoning
Haewon Jung, Mi Jin Lee, Jae Wan Cho, Jae Yun Ahn, Changho Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(2):47-57.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.2.47
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Purpose: Osmolar gap (OG) has been used for decades to screen for toxic alcohol levels. However, its reliability may vary due to several reasons. We validated the estimated ethanol concentration formula for patients with suspected poisoning and who visited the emergency department. We examined discrepancies in the ethanol level and patient characteristics by applying this formula when it was used to screen for intoxication due to toxic levels of alcohol. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 153 emergency department cases to determine the measured levels of toxic ethanol ingestion and we calculated alcohol ingestion using a formula based on serum osmolality. Those patients who were subjected to simultaneous measurements of osmolality, sodium, urea, glucose, and ethanol were included in this study. Patients with exposure to other toxic alcohols (methanol, ethylene glycol, or isopropanol) or poisons that affect osmolality were excluded. OG (the measured-calculated serum osmolality) was used to determine the calculated ethanol concentration. Results: Among the 153 included cases, 114 had normal OGs (OG≤14 mOsm/kg), and 39 cases had elevated OGs (OG>14). The mean difference between the measured and estimated (calculated ethanol using OG) ethanol concentration was -9.8 mg/dL. The 95% limits of agreement were -121.1 and 101.5 mg/dL, and the correlation coefficient R was 0.7037. For the four subgroups stratified by comorbidities and poisoning, the correlation coefficients R were 0.692, 0.588, 0.835, and 0.412, respectively, and the mean differences in measurement between the measured and calculated ethanol levels were -2.4 mg/dL, -48.8 mg/dL, 9.4 mg/dL, and -4.7 mg/dL, respectively. The equation plots had wide limits of agreement. Conclusion: We found that there were some discrepancies between OGs and the calculated ethanol concentrations. Addition of a correction factor for unmeasured osmoles to the equation of the calculated serum osmolality would help mitigate these discrepancies.
General Characteristics for Poisoning-Induced Transient or Sustained Hyperammonemia
Soo Hyung Lee, Hong In Park, Michael Sung Choe, Dong Wook Je, Woo Young Nho, Seong Hun Kim, Mi Jin Lee, Jae Yun Ahn, Sung Bae Moon, Dong Eun Lee, Jung Bae Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(2):136-143.   Published online December 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2016.14.2.136
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Purpose: In patients with altered mentality caused by drugs or unknown causes, ammonia is checked to facilitate differential diagnosis or diagnose hepatic coma. This helps early prevention and treatment of brain damage due to hyperammonemia. This study was conducted to evaluate clinical characteristics of intoxicated adult patients with hyperammonemia. Methods: We evaluated 95 patients with hyperammonemia among intoxicated patients above the age of 15 who visited our ED from January 2013 to December 2015. We analyzed the demographic characteristics and type of poisoning substance, reason for ingestion, toxicological characteristics such as elapsed time from ingestion to hospital visit, lab, clinical progression and complications. Data were evaluated using the student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, and Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test for frequency analysis of categorical variables. Results: When compared to healthy individuals, patients with hyperammonemia showed statistical significance on their SOFA score (p=0.016) and poison severity score (p<0.001). Additionally, patients with hyperammonemia showed significantly different initial serum AST level (p=0.012) and maximum serum AST level during the hospital stay (p=0.026) when compared to healthy individuals. Moreover, individuals with sustained hyperammonemia compared to transient hyperammonemia showed clinically significant SOFA scores (p<0.001), poison severity scores (p=0.007), mortality rates in the ICU (p=0.021), as well as different duration of hospital stay (p=0.037), serum creatinine level (p=0.002), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0.025), and serum myoglobin (p=0.015). Conclusion: Most poisoning-induced hyperammonemia cases were transient and recovered without special treatment. Therefore, hyperammonemia is almost non-specific among poisoning patients.
Application of Poisoning aBIG score for Prediction of Fatal Severity in Acute Adult Intoxications
Michael Sung Choe, Jae Yun Ahn, In Gu Kang, Mi Jin Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2014;12(1):14-21.   Published online June 30, 2014
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Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop a new scoring tool that is comprehensively applicable and predicts fatality within 24 h of intoxication. Methods: This was a cohort study conducted in two emergency medical centers from 2011 to 2012. We identified factors associated with severe/fatality. Through a discriminant analysis, we devised the aBIG (age, Base deficit, Infection, and Glasgow coma scale) score. To compare the ability of aBIG to predict intoxication severity with that of previous scoring systems such as APACHE II, MODS, SAPS IIe, and SOFA, we determined the receiver operating characteristic curves of each variable in predicting severe-to-fatal toxicity. Results: Compared with the mild/moderate toxicity group (n=211), the severe/fatal group (n=143) had higher incidences of metabolic acidosis, infection, serious mental change, QTc prolongation and hepato-renal failure. Age, base deficit, infection-WBC count, and Glasgow Coma Scale were independently associated with severe/fatal poisoning. These variables were combined into the poisoning "aBIG" score [$0.28{ imes}$Age group+$0.38{ imes}WBC$ count/$10^3+0.52{ imes}$Base deficit+$0.64{ imes}$(15-GCS)], which were each calculated to have an area under the curve of 0.904 (95% confidence interval: 0.868-0.933). The aBIG poisoning score had an equivalent level of severity predictability as APACHE II and a superior than MODS, SOFA, and SAPS IIe. Conclusion: We developed a simplified scoring system using the four variables of age, base deficit, infected leukocytosis, and GCS. The poisoning aBIG score was a simple method that could be performed rapidly on admission to evaluate severity of illness and predict fatal severity in patients with acute intoxications.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology