Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Author index

Page Path
HOME > Browse Articles > Author index
Search
Hyung-Keun Roh 21 Articles
The Clinical Feature and Prognostic Factor of Glyphosate Intoxication Patients
Hee Min Eun, Jin Hui Paik, Joo Hyun Suh, Jin Hee Jung, Eun Kyung Eo, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(2):89-95.   Published online December 31, 2013
  • 69 View
  • 2 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Glyphosate is widely used and its toxic exposures are not rare. Occasionally, glyphosate intoxication can lead to death. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical findings and fatality in glyphosate intoxication. Methods: Clinical data on acute glyphosate intoxication were prospectively collected at 28 hospitals nationwide between August 2005 and July 2006. The patients' clinical symptoms and characteristics of fatalities were investigated and statistical analysis was performed. Results: Among 105 patients who were finally included, gastrointestinal symptoms(59%) were the most common. A significant difference in the amount ingested was observed between patients with higher systolic blood pressure and those with systolic blood pressure less than or equal to 80 mmHg (p<0.001). The more the patients ingested, the more aggravated their mental status became (p=0.004). Seven patients(6.7%) died, and all of them had ingested greater than or equal to 200 ml. Patients who died had ingested greater amounts than the survivors (p<0.001), and their mental status was worse (p<0.001), and systolic blood pressure was lower (p<0.001). According to the result of logistic regression analysis, relative risk was 24.1-fold higher in the 'poor' mental status group compared with 'good'. Conclusion: Patients who ingested large amounts of glyphosate showed poor mental status and lower blood pressure. Statistical difference in amount ingested, mental status, and systolic blood pressure was observed between survivors and patients who died. Ingested amounts and mental status were the most important factor of the prognosis of glyphosate intoxication.
Proper Understanding and Application of Gastric Lavage
Bum Jin Oh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(1):1-8.   Published online June 30, 2013
  • 83 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Gastric lavage is one of gastrointestinal decontamination methods which have been controversial in the clinical toxicology field for a long time. Expert groups of American and European clinical toxicologists have published the position papers regarding gastric lavage three times since 1997. They recommended that gastric lavage should not be used as a routine procedure in the management of acute intoxication, because they thought that there is no certain evidence of improving clinical outcome by its use. However, the studies they reviewed were not well-controlled randomized trials, which cannot be conducted in the clinical toxicology field due to variability of patients and ethical problems. Therefore, the results from these studies should be interpreted with caution. They also insisted that gastric lavage can be undertaken within 60 minutes of ingestion. The limitation of one hour after ingestion is too arbitrary and may cause a lot of misunderstanding. Formation of pharmacobezoar or gastric hypomotility after ingestion may significantly delay the gastric emptying time so that gastric lavage can be useful even after several hours or more in case of highly toxic substances or severe intoxication. Furthermore, as there are a number of serious intoxication by toxic pesticides with large amount in suicidal attempts in Korea, it seems that gastric lavage may be used more frequently in Korea than in Western countries. When deciding whether or not to use gastric lavage, all the indications, contraindications, and possible adverse effects should be taken into account on the basis of risk-benefit analysis. If the procedure is decided to be done, it should only be performed by well-trained experts.
Radiological Accident and Acute Radiation Syndrome
Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2011;9(2):39-48.   Published online December 31, 2011
  • 70 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In mass casualty situation due to radiological accidents, it is important to start aggressive management with rapid triage decisions. External contamination needs immediate decontamination and internal contamination should be treated with special expertise and equipment to prevent the rapid uptake of radionuclides by target organs. Acute radiation syndrome shows a sequence of events that varies with the severity of the exposure. More severe exposures generally lead to more rapid onset of symptoms and severe clinical findings. After the massive exposure, various systems of the body reflect their severe damages that can lead to death within hours or up to several months. The disease progression has classically been divided into four stages: prodromal, latent, manifest illness, and recovery or death. Three characteristic clusters of symptoms including the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal syndrome and the cerebrovascular syndrome are all associated with the acute radiation syndrome. The standard medical management of the patients with a potentially survivable radiation exposure includes good medical, surgical and supportive measures. Specific treatment with cytokines and bone marrow transplantation should be considered. The management of internal contamination is much the same as the treatment of poisoning. The standard decontamination should be applied to reduce uptake, and the chelating agents can be administered to enhance the clearance of radioisotopes. Radioactive iodine ($^{131}I$) as one of the nuclear fission products can increase the incidence of thyroid cancer in children. Potential benefit of potassium iodide prophylaxis is greater especially in neonates, infants and small children.
Clinical Characteristics of Acute Zolpidem Intoxication
Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Eun-Kyung Eo, Young-Jin Cheon, Koo-Young Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(2):91-98.   Published online December 31, 2008
  • 70 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The hypnotic effect of zolpidem is comparable to benzodiazepines, but has less abuse and addiction potential than benzodiazepines, so is one of the most commonly prescribed hypnotics. The frequency of acute zolpidem overdose has increased, but clinical analysis and severity predictors are not known in Korea. Methods: A retrospective evaluation of histories, clinical courses, and laboratory findings of each patient treated from June, 2000, to May, 2006, in a university hospital for acute zolpidem intoxication. Results: We evaluated 30 patients, including 16 co-intoxication cases. Twenty-five patients presented mental alterations but became alert within 2 days. All patients recovered completely. The median zolpidem concentration was 0.9 mg/L (range: $0.2{sim}7.4;mg/L$). There was a weak correlation between the amount ingested and zolpidem concentration (r=0.25). None of them presented severe laboratory abnormalities, and these abnormalities did not relate to zolpidem concentration. Conclusion: The clinical progress of acute zolpidem intoxication is mild. We could not predict zolpidem concentration or clinical severity from the amount ingested and could not predict the clinical course from laboratory findings in the emergency department.
Clinical Implication of Acetylcholinesterase in Acute Organophosphate Poisoning
Hoon Kim, Seung-Baik Han, Jun-Sig Kim, Mi-Jin Lee, Joon-Seok Park, Woon-Yong Kwon, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):25-31.   Published online June 30, 2008
  • 68 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning may be monitored by measuring the acetylcholinesterase (AChE). It is important to assess severity and establish prognostic tests in the early stage of OP poisoning. The aim of this study was to look at the relationship between various clinical aspects of the OP poisoning, prognostic indicators of OP poisoning including Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3, and the associated changes in AChE levels. Methods: Clinical data and initial AChE levels from thirty-seven patients with OP poisoning were prospectively reviewed from 12 teaching hospitals in South Korea from August 2005 to July 2006. Clinical manifestations at the time of arrival such as miosis, respiratory abnormality, salivation, urinary incontinence, GCS score, AVPU scale, need for intubation, and mechanical ventilation requirements were recorded. SAPS 3 was calculated using clinical data and laboratory results. Results: The median level of AChE was 9.8 (1.3-53.6) U/gHb. There was no significant difference in AChE levels between the groups with and without cholinergic symptoms. The median level of AChE of the patients who required intubation and those who did not were 3.5 U/gHb and it 19.7 U/gHb respectively (Mann-Whitney test; p<0.001). The AChE levels were also significantly different (p=0.007) in patients who needed mechanical ventilation compared to those who did not with AChE levels found to be 3.1 U/gHb and it was 14.8 U/gHb, respectively. Level of consciousness assessed using the AVPU scale was correlated with AChE levels (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.013). GCS score were correlated with AChE levels (p=0.007, Spearman's rho = 0.454). In addition, the lower the level of initial AChE, the longer the ICU stay (p=0.029, Spearman's rho=-0.380). SAPS 3 was inversely correlated with the initial AChE (p<0.001, Spearman's rho=-0.633). Conclusion: In the acute OP poisoning, low AChE levels appear to help indicate the severity of poisoning. The initial AChE level may be a useful prognostic parameter for acute OP poisoning.
A Case of Amitraz Insecticide Intoxication after Ingestion of Large Amount
Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):52-56.   Published online June 30, 2008
  • 63 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Amitraz is used as farm-animal insecticide. Its side effects in humans are related to its pharmacological activity on alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. The case describes a previously healthy 46-year-old woman who intentionally ingested approximately 250mL of liquid amitraz. She presented with vomiting, altered mental status, miosis, dry mouth, hypopnea, metabolic and respiratory acidosis, hypotension, hypothermia, polyuria, metabolic acidosis, elevated serum aminotransferase and abdominal distension. Supportive treatments including mechanical ventilation, hydration, dopamine infusion, bicarbonate infusion and gastric decompression resulted in improvement. By hospital day 3, she recovered with resolution of abdominal distension. It is paramount to recognize amitraz poisoning when a pesticide-intoxicated patient presets with signs and symptoms consistent with organophosphate intoxicated patients but with greater alpha 2-adrenergic related symptoms such as decreased bowel motility and xerostomia.
Clinical Characteristics of Acute Dichlorvos Poisoning in Korea
Mi-Jin Lee, Joon-Seok Park, Woon-Yong Kwon, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):9-15.   Published online June 30, 2008
  • 79 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Dichlorvos has been in widespread use as an organophosphate (OP) insecticide compound. The purpose of this study was to access the epidemiology and clinical features of dichlorvos in Korea. Methods: This was a 38 multi-center prospective study of dichlorvos poisoning using surveys, a structural reporting system and review of hospital records from August 2005 to July 2006. A total of 54 patients with acute dichlorvos poisoning on a national basis were enrolled. We analyzed the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical manifestations of dichlorvos poisoning. In addition, the clinical features of dichlorvos poisoning were compared with others OP compounds. Results: During the study period, compounds involving pure OP poisoning were dichlorvos (22.7%), methidathion (8.4%), and phosphamidon (6.7%). In acute dichlorvos poisoning, all ingestion routes were oral. Intentional poisoning involved 74.1% of cases. The common initial complaints involved gastrointestinal (64.8%), systemic (61.1%), central or peripheral nervous system (53.7%), and respiratory symptoms (50.0%). The median arrival time to hospital after dichlorvos poisoning was 2.6 hours and mean hospitalization duration was 7.1 days. 2-PAM was administered in 35 patients in mean doses of 6.3 g/day intravenously. Atropine was administered in 30 patients with a mean dose of 62.8 mg/day (maximal 240 mg/day). Overall mortality rate for dichlorvos poisonings were 14.8% (8/54). Immediate causes for death included sudden cardiac arrest or ventricular dysrhythmias (50%), multi-organ failure (25%), acute renal failure (12.5%), and unknown causes (12.5%). Conclusion: When compared to previous reports, dichlorvos poisoning displayed relatively moderate severity. The presence of a lower GCS score, altered mental status, serious dysrhythmias, systemic shock, acute renal failure, and respiratory complications upon presentation were associated with a more serious and fatal poisoning.
Clinical Aspects of the Chlorophenoxy Herbicide Intoxicated Patients
Young-Soon Cho, Ho-Jung Kim, Bum-Jin Oh, Joo-Hyun Suh, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Hyung-Keun Roh, Hoon Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(2):112-118.   Published online December 31, 2007
  • 70 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: There have been relatively few reports of chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning. The purpose of this study is to analyze the general characteristics and clinical aspects of the chlorophenoxy herbicide intoxicated patients in Korea. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the chlorophenoxy herbicide intoxicated patients visiting to the 38 emergency medical centers in Korea from the 1 August 2005 to the 31 July 2006. Results: 24 patients were enrolled during the study periods. Their mean age was 55.7 years old. The median amount of the chlorophenoxy herbicide intoxicated is 150 mL. The most frequent location where the patients obtained and took the chlorophenoxy herbicide was their home. Frequent compounds involving chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning were dicamba(66.7%), MCPP(16.7%), and 2,4-D(12.5%). The most common symptom of the patients was confusion and vomiting. 16 patients(66.7%) intended to suicide. 3 patients out of 24 patients(13.0%) were died. Conclusion: There were 24 patients intoxicated by the chlorophenoxy herbicide during the study periods. The mortality rate was 13.0%. The suicidal attempts and the numbers of death involving chlorophenoxy herbicide were high in Korea.
The Study of Pyrethroid Intoxication: The basis of Agrichemical Intoxication Survey in 2005
Ah-Jin Kim, Kyung-Hwan Kim, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(2):99-105.   Published online December 31, 2007
  • 75 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Pyrethroid is an insecticide that produces moderate intoxication in mammals, with neither exposure to skin nor inhalation resulting in severe systemic manifestations. In 2005 we made a nationwide survey of agrichemical human intoxication. The object of this study is to analyze pyrethroid intoxications based on the 2005 survey. Methods: We prospectively collected data from 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2006 by a standard investigation protocol. We analyzed demographic data, exposure data (cause, amount, ingredients), clinical features, and courses. Results: A total of 125 cases of pyrethroid intoxication were surveyed. The mean patient age was $56.78{pm}16.158$ years old, and the mean amount ingested was $121.85{pm}110.732ml$. Patients were classified into four severity groups according to symptoms and mental status: the asymptomatic group (27 patients, 21.6%), the mild symptom group (48, 38.4%), the moderate symptom group (21, 16.8%), and the severe symptom group (7, 5.6%). There were statistically significant differences in mental status, severity, and mean ICU days between two groups. Admission days by severity grade for the asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe symptom groups were $5.49{pm}16.051,;3.65{pm}4.143,;4.59{pm}3.335,;and;8.14{pm}7.199days$, respectively (p=0.047). Conclusion: Nationwide surveillance was extremely telling in uncovering a high frequency of agrichemical intoxication in Korea. In pyrethroid intoxication, severity grading can be a useful prognostic tool.
Characteristics and Prognostic Factors of Carbamate Poisoning in Korea
Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Gil-Joon Suh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2007
  • 75 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and the prognostic factors of carbamate poisoned patients who visited emergency departments. Methods: From August 2005 to July 2006, we investigated the demographic feature, dose of exposure, time of exposure, alcohol intake, route of exposure, reason of exposure, site of exposure, pre-existing medical condition, time from exposure to emergency department (ED), transfer from other hospitals, vital sign at ED arrival, symptom or sign at ED arrival, and result of care of the patients who visited the ED of thirty-eight hospitals in Korea. According to the result of care, we divided the patients into two groups, the survival and the dead. To evaluated the prognostic factors, we calculated the odds ratio of each factor for the survival. Results: Among the sixty-eight patients, fifty-five patients (80.9%) were survival and thirteen patients (19.1%) were dead. The patients in the dead were older than the patients in the survival. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of the patients in the dead was lower than the GCS in the survival. The odds ratio of the GCS at ED arrival for the survival was 1.58 (95% CI; 1.23-2.05). Other factors showed no statistical significances. Conclusion: The GCS at emergency department arrival was the prognosis factor of the carbamate poisoned patients who visited emergency departments. If the carbamate poisoned patients showed altered mentalities, they should be provided intensive care, immediately.
Clinical Aspects of the Organochlorine Intoxicated Patients
Jun-Ho Cho, Bum-Jin Oh, Joo-Hyun Suh, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Hyung-Keun Roh, In-Cheol Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):15-20.   Published online June 30, 2007
  • 70 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: To analyze the general characteristics and clinical aspects of the organochlorine intoxicated patients in Korea. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the organochlorine intoxicated patients visiting to the 38 emergency medical centers in Korea from the 1, Aug. 2005 to the 31, Jul. 2006. Results: There were 38 patients intoxicated by the organochlorine during the study periods. The mean age of patients was 55.1 years old. The mean amount of the organochlorine intoxicated is 246.1 mL. The most frequent place where the patients got and took the organochlorine was their home. Twenty eight patients(73.7%) intended to suicide. Nine patients out of 38 patients(23.7%) were died and they all intended to suicide. Conclusion: There were 38 patients intoxicated by the organochlorine during the study periods. The suicidal attempts and the number of the dead were higher in Korea than the developed countries.
Organophosphate-Pyrethroid Mixtures Poisoning
Dae-Young Hong, Kwang-Je Baek, Kyeong-Ryong Lee, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Jun-Sig Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):21-26.   Published online June 30, 2007
  • 65 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Owing to organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures are widely used, suicidal or unintentional poisoning is common. But there have been relatively few reports of poisoning. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the difference of the severity and toxicity between organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures poisoning and single organophosphate poisoning. Methods: From August 2005 to July 2006, 65 patients presented with organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures poisoning to emergency medical center. Date were gathered by report form it was drawn up. Results: 65 patients were enrolled in 28 hospitals and their mean age was $56.5{pm}16.2$ years old. The most common cause of poisoning was suicide, in 52 cases(80%). Chlorpyrifos-cypermethrin, malathion-esfenvalerate were the most frequent chemicals involved, and the mean ingestion amount was 135.4ml. The most common symptom of the patients was nausea/vomiting, in 16 patients. The average GCS score was 13. The mean ICU stay was $4.4{pm}5.2$ days, and mortality was 3.1%. Conclusion: The severity and toxicity of organophosphate-pyrethroid mixture poisoning were lower than that of single organophosphate poisoning.
Clinical Characteristics of Acute Pure Organophosphate Compounds Poisoning - 38 Multi-centers Survey in South Korea -
Mi-Jin Lee, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):27-35.   Published online June 30, 2007
  • 71 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Organophosphate (OP) compounds insecticides are the most commonly associated with serious human toxicity all over the world. The aim of this study was to identify sociocultural factors that contribute to high incidence of pure OP poisoning and prevent OP poisoning in order to reduce the factors responsible for deaths in South Korea. Methods: This is the 38 multi-centers survey and prospective study of pure OP poisoning by structural reporting system and hospital records from August 2005 to July 2006. 238 patients with acute pure OP poisoning were enrolled. We collected patient information regarding poisoning, clinical, and demographic features. Results: The mean age was $55.32{pm}17.3$ years old. The most frequent site of exposure was their own residence(85.7%). Frequent compounds involving pure OP poisoning were dichlorvos(22.7%), methidathion(8.4%), and phosphamidon(6.7%). Intentional poisoning was 77.9%. The most frequently route of exposure was ingestion(94.5%). The mean arrival time to hospital after poisoning was 12.7 hours and mean hospitalization duration was 12.9 days. 2-PAM was administered to 101 patients in mean doses of 6.3 g/day intravenously. Atropine was administered to 81 patients in mean doses of 74.6 mg/day (maximal 910 mg/day). The presence of lower level of GCS score, respiratory complications, hypotension, acute renal failure, and serious dysrhythmia was associated with serious and fatal poisoning. Overall final mortality in pure OP poisoning was 9.7%(23/238). Conclusion: This study highlights the problem of pure OP poisoning in South Korea as a basic national survey. Futhermore this might help the establishment of strict policies availability of OP and the statistics of OP poison exposure in South Korea.
Epidemiology and Clinical Analysis of Poisoning of Glufosinate Herbicide - Multicenter Study -
Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):36-42.   Published online June 30, 2007
  • 65 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: To assess the epidemiology and the clinical features of Glufosinate herbicide in Korea. Methods: Data was prospectively collected during 1 year since August 2005 from 38 hospital in Korea. We analyzed the epidemiologic characters and clinical manifestations of Glufosinate poisoning. In addition, the characteristics of patients with severe central nervous system toxicity were separately analyzed to find poor prognosis relating factors. Results: During study periods, there were 715 persons of poisoning of herbicides and insecticides. 6.3% (45 persons) of the agricultural chemicals poisoning had Glufosinate poisoning. There were 36 cases of suicide attempts and 7 cases of accidental exposure, The major of poisoning route was oral ingestion (44 cases). 28.9 % of the study patients had not toxic symptoms. The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal symptoms relating surfactant irritation. 67.7% of central nervous symptoms occurred lately. 10 persons showed severe central nervous system toxicity. 4 persons of them showed poor outcomes (1 death, 3 hopeless discharged). Complications of respiratory failure and renal failure related with poor outcome. Conclusion: Majority of patients ingested Glufosinate for suicide attempt. 22.2% of patients with Glufosinate poisoning showed delayed serious central nervous system toxicity. Early supportive care of altered mentality may prevent late respiratory complications and improve the outcomes.
A Fatal Case of Dicamba Intoxication
Dae-Young Hong, Wook-Hyun Um, Kyoung-Mi Lee, Ji-Hye Kim, Seung-Baik Han, Joo-Hyun Suh, Jun-Sig Kim, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(1):69-72.   Published online June 30, 2006
  • 67 View
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Dicamba is a benzoic acid and classified as a chemically related chlorophenoxy herbicide which is widely used for the control of broad-leaved weeds. While the chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning is known to be uncommon, its ingestion can result in serious or sometimes fatal outcome. A 65-year-old man ingested about 300 ml of dicamba in a suicidal attempt and three hours later he was admitted hospital, complaining abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. On admission his vital signs were normal and laboratory findings were not remarkable except metabolic acidosis in arterial blood gas analysis. Shortly after the admission endotracheal tube was inserted due to altered mental state and activated charcoal was given after performing gastric lavage. However, his vital signs became unstable 6hrs after the ingestion and mechanical ventilation was started with administration of inotropic agents. In spite of urine alkalization for rapid elimination of the absorbed dicamba, the metabolic acidosis was aggravated with concomitant rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, and he died 24 hrs after the ingestion.
Severe Liver Toxicity Caused by Amatoxin (Case Series)
Joo-Hyun Suh, Sung-Jin Kim, Young-Kuk Chung, Woong-Gil Choi, Young-Se Kwon, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(1):73-77.   Published online June 30, 2006
  • 64 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Poisoning with mushroom containing amatoxin may be a real medical emergency and is characterized by long incubation time lag, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatotoxic phase and sometimes death. We report a family of parents and two children who ingested wild mushroom and recovered from varying degrees of hepatotoxicity. After eating cooked wild mushroom and its soup, they all developed abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea 11 hours later, Their liver enzymes reached peak level between 48 and 72 hours after the ingestion. Among the family members, 5-year-old girl showed the most severe hepatic toxicity of AST/ALT 14,099/13,176 IU/L. They were all treated with supportive measures including repeated activated charcoal and penicillin G and recovered from the hepatotoxicity between 7 and 28 days after the ingestion. Being based on the shape and a typical course of the amatoxin poisoning, we presume that this wild mushroom belongs to Amanita virosa.
A Case of Acute Glufosinate Ammonium ($BASTA^{(R)}$) Intoxication Associated with Various Neurological Abnormalities
Jin Hui Paik, Jun Sig Kim, Hyeon Gyu Yi, Hyun Joo Park, Choong-Kun Ha, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):103-106.   Published online December 31, 2005
  • 69 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BASTA is an herbicide which contains glufosinate ammonium as a main component with an anionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene alkylether sulfate, and nonselectively inhibits glutamine synthetase. It became a wildly used herbicide in Korea and its intoxication is now increasing. A 42-year old woman ingested about 300ml of BASTA in a suicide attempt. She showed unconsciousness and respiratory distress in the beginning, and later developed multiple generalized convulsions, low blood pressure, fever and diabetes insipidus. Although she became alert 12 days after the ingestion, she showed retrograde amnesia for a period of about recent 10 years. A neuropsychological test on day 22 revealed frontal lobe dysfunction, visual memory disturbance and slight decrease in visuospatial function. All these neurological abnormalities that might occur due to glufosinate ammonium were almost improved in the follow-up test performed a month later.
Appropriateness of Labelling Practice for Pesticides in Korea
Bum Jin Oh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Won Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Yoo Dong Shon, Hui Dong Kang, Kyoung Soo Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):71-78.   Published online December 31, 2005
  • 70 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The morbidity of pesticides are largely related with accidental ingestion in human. The four principal ideals of clarity, completeness, conformity and consistency of label are important to make a correct usage and prevent unnecessary health risk. The aim of this study is to evaluate the appropriateness of pesticides labelling practice in Korea. Methods: The photographic label images of pesticide products were gathered through visiting thirteen manufacturers that produce pesticide products in Korea. We scored labelling practice by guidelines of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 1995. Results: From August 2005 to November 2005, we gathered 1,296 label images of pesticide and $58.3{\%}$ (755/1,296) of images were scored by check lists for reviewing label content. The average score of four check list categories was $71.9{pm}2.2$. Each categorical score were $91.7{pm}0.9$ for the information appearing on the label, $31.3{pm}0.0$ for safety precaution, $77.7{pm}2.0$ for instructions for use, $87.0{pm}8.7$ for general configurations. In safety precaution, the sentence of keeping locked up the product and two mandatory safety pictograms were missed in all label images. In general configurations category, there was score difference in product package types between bottle and bag container ($85.1{pm}9.0$ vs. $90.3{pm}7.2$, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Although there was no comparable previous data, the score of safety precaution was lowest than other categories because the two mandatory safety pictograms and locked up warning sentence were missed. In general configurations, the colour contrast was more inappropriate in the labels on bottle than bag container.
A Case of Rhabdomyolysis after Alprazolam Overdose
Sung-Ho Ki, Hyun-Joo Park, Woong-Gil Choi, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(2):151-153.   Published online December 31, 2004
  • 68 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Causes of rhabdomyolysis can be divided into traumatic and nontraumatic, Among the nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis, it is known that ingestion of drugs is one of the common causes. However, there have been few reports that benzodiazepine overdose causes rhabdomyolysis, moreover there was no report about rhabdomyolysis after alprazolam overdose. We experienced a case of rhabdomyolysis after alprazolam overdose. A 51-year-old woman was brought to the emergency room 11 hours after ingestion of 30 tablets (15 mg) of alprazolam in a suicidal attempt. On admission she was comatose and her CK level was 8,290 lUlL. The CK level increased up to 25,598 IU/L 10 hours after admission, but she became alert on the third day. Subsequently the CK level decreased gradually with supportive care without renal impairment and she discharged from the hospital on the $10^{th}$ day. Although a pressure effect on the dependent portion of the body due to mental alteration before admission might have caused the rhabdomyolysis, the alprazolam, per se, cannat be ruled out for the cause.
A Case of Serious Caustic Injury after Ingestion of Hydrochloric Acid
Hyun-Joo Park, Hyeon-Gyu Yi, Pum-Soo Kim, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(1):58-62.   Published online June 30, 2004
  • 65 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Acid ingestion can cause not only caustic injury on esophagus and stomach but also fatal outcome through systemic complications. We report the case of a patient who died early after severe caustic injury with strong acid. A 38-year-old man who ingested about 400ml of hydrochloric acid of unknown concentration was transferred to our hospital from a private clinic, in which he was managed with gastric irrigation through a nasogastric tube. He was complaining dyspnea and abdominal pain. Physical examination demonstrated tenderness and rebound tenderness on epigastric region. Severe metabolic acidosis and leukocytosis were noted. Radiological findings suggested perforation of gastrointestinal tract, although the physical signs were not typical. Endoscopy revealed caustic injuries of grade I on esophagus and of grade Ⅲ on stomach, which indicate more severe injury on the stomach than on the esophagus. Exploratory surgery was recommended but unfortunately not permitted by his family. Despite intensive measures, his vital signs deteriorated rapidly and he died 50 hours after the ingestion.
A Case of Pyloric Obstruction Developed after Upper GI Barium Study in Patients with Caustic Injury on Gastrointestinal Tract
Jeong-Goo Kim, Hye-Jin Cho, Seung-Hee Lee, Pum-Soo Kim, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2003;1(1):51-55.   Published online June 30, 2003
  • 67 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Caustic ingestion can produce a progressive and devastating injury to the esophagus and stomach, In the acute stage, perforation and necrosis may occur. Long-term complications include esophageal stricture, antral stenosis and the development of esophageal cancer. Endoscopy should be performed as soon as possible in all cases to evaluate the extent and severity of damage, unless there is evidence of perforation. Endoscopy is the diagnostic procedure of choice. However, when the endoscopy cannot be passed through due to esophageal stricture, upper GI barium studies may be useful as a follow-up measure and in the evaluation of complications. A 44-year-old man visited our hospital complaining frequent vomiting 1 hour after ingestion of unknown amount of hydrochloric acid. At the time of arrival, the patient's oral cavity was slightly swollen and erythematous. On the endoscopic examination fourteen hour after the caustic ingestion, marked swelling of the arytenoids and circumferential ulceration with brown and black pigmentation at the upper esophagus were observed. Four weeks after the caustic injury, upper esophageal narrowing was observed and then the scope could not be advanced to the stomach. Upper GI barium study performed at that time revealed diffuse luminal narrowing of the esophagus and concentric luminal narrowing from prepyloric antrum to pylorus with disturbance of barium passage. At a week after the Upper GI study, through endoscopic examination after bougie dilatation of the esophagus, barium impaction in the stomach and the pylorus was noticed.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology