Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Author index

Page Path
HOME > Browse Articles > Author index
Search
Hyun Kim 22 Articles
Changes in the characteristics of acute carbon monoxide poisoning patients who visited the emergency department during the COVID-19 pandemic
Jun bo Sim, Tae kyu Ahn, Hyun Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):108-116.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00008
  • 244 View
  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study investigated the differences between patients with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning who visited the emergency department (ED) before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
Methods
This was a single-center retrospective observational study. Patients with CO poisoning who visited the ED during the period from February 2020 to January 2023 were classified as the COVID-19 pandemic group, and those from February 2019 to January 2020 were classified as the non-pandemic group. Patients’ medical records were reviewed, their demographic and clinical characteristics were compared, and the length of stay in ED was checked. The time from admission to the ED to the start of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) was defined as the door-to-HBO time, and this parameter was compared between both groups.
Results
In total, 672 patients were included in this study. The proportion of intentional poisoning was significantly higher in the COVID-19 pandemic group than in the non-pandemic group (p=0.028). The proportion of intentional poisoning significantly increased in the 20- to 29-year-old age group during the COVID-19 pandemic (p<0.001). In addition, it took longer to initiate HBO in the COVID-19 pandemic group than in the non-pandemic group (p=0.001).
Conclusion
These findings suggest that pandemics of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, increase the proportion of intentional CO poisoning, and it may take longer to initiate HBO after visiting the ED. Efforts will be needed to decrease intentional CO poisoning and length of stay in ED.
Analysis of Poisoning Patients Using 2017-18 ED Based Injury in-depth Surveillance Data
Jiyoon Koh, Woochan Jeon, Hyunggoo Kang, Yang Weon Kim, Hyun Kim, Bum Jin Oh, Mi Jin Lee, Byeong Jo Chun, Sung Phil Chung, Kyung Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):85-93.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.85
  • 167 View
  • 7 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The annual statistics for poisoning are reported based on the data from poison control centers in many advanced countries. In 2016 a study was conducted to analyze the 2016 Korea Poisoning status. This study was conducted to make a better annual report for poisoning statistics in Korea from a 2017-2018 national representative database. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of poisoning patients based on the data from an emergency department (ED) based injury in-depth surveillance project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017-2018. Bite or sting injuries were not included. Results: A total of 17714 patients presented to 23 EDs because of poisoning. Adults above 20 years old age accounted for 84.6% of the population, while the proportion of intentional poisoning was 60.8%. The poisoning substance presented in the ED were therapeutic drugs (51.2%), gas (20.3%), pesticides (16.4%), and artificial substances (11.4%). Overall, 35% of patients were admitted for further treatment. The mortality was 2.4% (422 cases), and the most common fatal substances in order were carbon monoxide, other herbicides, and paraquat. Conclusion: This study showed the 2017-2018 status of poisoning in Korea. The prognosis is different from the cause of poisoning and the initial mental state of the patient. Therefore, appropriate methods for preventing poisoning and therapeutic plans in specific situations are needed.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Status and trends of medical expenditures for poisoning patients
    Eung Nam Kim, Soyoung Jeon, Hye Sun Lee, Sung Phil Chung
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 24.     CrossRef
  • The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
    Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Prioritising Risk Factors for Prescription Drug Overdose among Older Adults in South Korea: A Multi-Method Study
    Eun-Hae Lee, Ju-Ok Park, Joon-Pil Cho, Choung-Ah Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(11): 5948.     CrossRef
Relationship between Serum Neuron Specific Enolase Level and Seizure in Patients with Acute Glufosinate Ammonium Poisoning
Gyo Jin An, Yoonsuk Lee, Yong Sung Chan, Hyun Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):49-56.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.49
  • 86 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Glufosinate ammonium poisoning can cause seizures, even after a symptom-free period. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) level and the occurrence of seizures in patients with acute glufosinate ammonium poisoning. Methods: For this retrospective observational study, data from patients diagnosed with acute glufosinate ammonium poisoning were collected between January 2016 and June 2016. Serum NSE was measured within 2 hours of arrival at the emergency department. The patients were divided into a seizure group and a non-seizure group. Results: The seizure group included eight of the 15 total patients (53.3%). The serum NSE level was significantly higher in the seizure group than in the non-seizure group ($32.4{pm}11.9ng/mL$ vs. $19.5{pm}5ng/mL$, p=0.019). The amount of glufosinate ingested and initial and peak serum ammonia levels were significantly higher in the seizure group than in the non-seizure group. There was no significant difference in the area under the curve of the serum NSE level or the initial and peak serum ammonia levels in terms of predicting the occurrence of seizures. Conclusion: In acute glufosinate poisoning, initial serum NSE levels may help in prediction of seizures.
Analysis of Poisoning Patients Using 2016 ED Based Injury in-depth Surveillance Data
Sung Phil Chung, Mi Jin Lee, Hyunggoo Kang, Bum Jin Oh, Hyun Kim, Yang Weon Kim, Byeong Jo Chun, Kyung Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):86-93.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.86
  • 71 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Some advanced countries have reported annual statistics for poisoning based on data from poison control centers. This study was conducted to propose a baseline format and statistics of poisoning in Korea from a national representative database. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of poisoning patients based on data from an emergency department (ED) based injury in-depth surveillance project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2016. Bite or sting injuries were not included. Variables related to poisoning were summarized using a similar format as the National Poison Data System in the United States. Results: A total of 7,820 poisoning patients presented to 23 EDs. Adults ${geq}20$ years accounted for 84% of the population, while the proportion of intentional poisoning was 59.4%. The most common poisoning substances were therapeutic drugs (45%), gas (21%), pesticides (15%), and artificial toxic substances (13%). Overall, 34.5% of patients were admitted for further treatment. The mortality was 3.2% (248 cases), and the most common causative substances were carbon monoxide, glyphosate, and paraquat, in order. Conclusion: This study showed the recent status of poisoning in Korea. However, a comprehensive poisoning registry based on poison control centers may be required to provide more accurate national statistics in the future.
Incidence and Features of Cognitive Dysfunction Identified by Using Mini-mental State Examination at the Emergency Department among Carbon Monoxide-poisoned Patients with an Alert Mental Status
Hyun Youk, Yong Sung Cha, Hyun Kim, Sung Hoon Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Oh Hyun Kim, Hyung Il Kim, Kyoung Chul Cha, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(2):115-121.   Published online December 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2016.14.2.115
  • 75 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Because carbon monoxide (CO)-intoxicated patients with an alert mental status and only mild cognitive dysfunction may be inadequately assessed by traditional bedside neurologic examination in the emergency department (ED), they may not receive appropriate treatment. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the incidence and features of cognitive dysfunction using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K) in ED patients with CO poisoning with alert mental status. We conducted a retrospective review of 43 consecutive mild CO poisoned patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 based on documentation by the treating emergency physician in the ED between July 2014 and August 2015. Results: Cognitive dysfunction, defined as a score of less than 24 in the MMSE-K, was diagnosed in six patients (14%) in the ED. In the MMSE-K, orientation to time, memory recall, and concentration/calculation showed greater impairments. The mean age was significantly older in the cognitive dysfunction group than the non-cognitive dysfunction group (45.3 yrs vs. 66.5 yrs, p<0.001). Among the initial symptoms, experience of a transient change in mental status before ED arrival was significantly more common in the cognitive dysfunction group (32.4% vs. 100%, p=0.003). Conclusion: Patients with CO poisoning and an alert mental status may experience cognitive dysfunction as assessed using the MMSE-K during the early stages of evaluation in the ED. In the MMSE-K, orientation to time, memory recall, and concentration/calculation showed the greatest impairment.
A Patient Presenting with Elevations of Cardiac Enzyme Levels after Veratrum Oxysepalum Ingestion
Ji Young Hwang, Hyun Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):111-116.   Published online December 31, 2015
  • 61 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Veratrum patulum has toxicological relevance because of the potential for misidentification of this plant as mountain garlic. Veratrum patulum has an ester-alkaloid that provokes cardiac arrhythmias by excessive vagal stimulation and depression of the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes of the heart and hypotension, cardiomegaly. We report on a retrospective case of successful outcome in patients with veratrum patulum poisoning through active treatment from the early phase after ingestion. We report on a case involving a patient who experienced dizziness, dyspnea, hypotension, and elevation of cardiac enzyme, cardiomegaly. These cases were kept under observation and generally recovered with supportive care. We report on cases of veratrum patulum poisoning with review of literature.
Evaluation of Cardiac Function by Transthoracic Echocardiography in Patients with Myocardial Injury Secondary to Organophosphate Poisoning
Yoonsuk Lee, Oh Hyun Kim, Hyung Il Kim, Kyoung Chul Cha, Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang, Yong Sung Cha
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):62-70.   Published online December 31, 2015
  • 78 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Cardiac complications may occur in cases of organophosphate (OP) poisoning. However, a few studies regarding patterns of cardiac toxicity as determined by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) after exposure to OP have been reported. In the current study, the authors examined cardiac functions using TTE in patients with myocardial injury caused by exposure to OP. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 16 consecutive cases of OP poisoning with myocardial injury (defined as elevated troponin I within 48 hours of arrival at the regional emergency center in South Korea and diagnosed and treated at the center from January 2012 to November 2014. Results: TTE was performed in 11 (69%) of the 16 patients with an elevated troponin I (TnI) level within 48 hours. Of these 11 patients, 5 patients (45.5%) exhibited reduced ejection fraction (EF), and 3 exhibited regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA). Two patients (18.2%) had both reduced systolic function and RWMA. Two of the 5 patients with reduced EF returned to normal systolic function, however two patients did not regain normal systolic function after admission. One patient expired due to multiple organ failure, and 4 patients were transferred with a moribund status. Twelve of 15 patients who survived to discharge (at 4 to 35 months) were followed. Five of these patients died during follow-up and 7 survived without further complications. Conclusion: OP can cause reversible cardiac dysfunction including reduced systolic function and RWMA. Serum TnI may be useful for initial assessment of cardiac function during the workup of patients suffering from OP poisoning. After the initial assessment of cardiac enzyme, further evaluation with TTE in patients with abnormal cardiac enzyme will be necessary to understand the cardiac toxicity.
Comparing the Possible Complications of Endoscopy Dependent on Time in Caustic Poisoned Patients
Jin Geul Choi, Oh Hyun Kim, Hyun Kim, Dong Keon Lee, Jin Go, Tae Hoon Kim, Kyoung Chul Cha, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang, Yong Sung Cha
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2014;12(2):70-76.   Published online December 31, 2014
  • 68 View
  • 2 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Endoscopy has been recommended as a primary procedure for determining the extent of damage and prognosis in patients with caustic ingestions. Endoscopy within the first 24 hours has been suggested, however, such immediate endoscopy is not always possible. Therefore, we wanted to determine complications and possible delayed sequelae after the endoscopy performed dependent on time, including less than 24 hours and more than 24 hours, after ingestion of relatively high toxic caustic agents. Methods: From January 2005 to May 2013, 105 consecutive patients were diagnosed with caustic poisoning in the emergency department of the Wonju Severance Christian Hospital. Out of 95 patients who underwent endoscopy, while excluding 49 patients who ingested sodium hypochlorite and 15 patients due to insufficient data, 41 patients were ultimately included. We compared general characteristics, complications related to endoscopy, late sequelae, total admission length, and mortality between two groups. Results: Twenty eight patients (68.3%) were diagnosed with acid ingestion. Median endoscopy time was 17.8 (IQR 9.7-36.9) hours and performed in 16 patients (39%) after 24 hours. There were no complications, such as perforation and bleeding in either endoscopy within 24 hours group or endoscopy after 24 hours group. In addition, no difference in ingested materials, endoscopy grade, or late sequelae was observed between endoscopy within 24 hours group and endoscopy after 24 hours group. Conclusion: No difference in complications and late sequelae was observed between endoscopy within 24 hours group and endoscopy after 24 hours group when endoscopy was performed based on a clinician's assessment.
Acute Pancreatitis after Carbamate Poisoning
Joseph Park, Yong Won Kim, Se Hyun Oh, Yong Sung Cha, Kyoung Chul Cha, Oh Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang, Hyun Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2014;12(2):77-84.   Published online December 31, 2014
  • 79 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Carbamate insecticides are potent cholinesterase inhibitors capable of causing severe cholinergic toxicity. Use of carbamate rather than organophosphate insecticides has been increasing. Compared with organophosphate poisoning, relatively few studies have investigated carbamate-associated acute pancreatitis. We investigated general characteristics and pancreatitis of carbamate poisoning and the predictors, among those readily assessed in the emergency department. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients, aged over 18 years, who were admitted between January 2008 and April 2012 to an emergency department (ED) of an academic tertiary care center for treatment of carbamate poisoning. Patients who exhibited poisoning by any other material, except alcohol, were excluded. After application of exclusion criteria, patients were divided according to carbamate-induced pancreatitis and non-pancreatitis groups. Results: A total of 41 patients were included in this study. Among these 41 patients, the prevalence of acute pancreatitis was 36.6% (15 patients). Initial blood chemistry tests showed a statistically higher glucose level in the pancreatitis group, compared with the non-pancreatitis group (222, IQR 189-284 vs. 137, IQR 122-175 mg/dL, P<0.05). Regarding clinical courses and outcomes, a significantly higher proportion of patients developed pneumonia [10 (66.7%) vs. 6 (23.1%), P<0.05] and had a longer hospital stay (7 days, IQR 6-12 vs. 5 days, IQR 2-11, P<0.05), but no difference in mortality, in the pancreatitis group vs. the non-pancreatitis group. In multivariate analysis, the initial glucose was showing significant association with the presentation of carbamate-induced acute pancreatitis (odds ratio 1.018, 95% confidence interval 1.001-1.035, P<0.05). Conclusion: Carbamate-induced acute pancreatitis is common, but not fatal. Initial serum glucose level is associated with acute pancreatitis.
Fatal Brain Injury in Pyrethroid Poisoned Patient: Case Report
Woo Jin Jung, Yong Sung Cha, Dong Keon Lee, Hyun Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2014;12(2):88-91.   Published online December 31, 2014
  • 67 View
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pyrethroids have been widely using insecticides. Although generally regarded as less toxic to mammals including humans, we report one fatal case of pyrethroid poisoning with severe brain injury.
Delayed Continuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration in Chronic Lithium Intoxication
Tae Su Kim, Yong Sung Cha, Hyun Kim, Oh Hyun Kim, Kyoung Chul Cha, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(1):28-30.   Published online June 30, 2013
  • 78 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A 66-year-old male with chronic alcoholism presented with tremor, gait disturbance, memory impairment, insomnia, decreased appetite, and confusion. The patient had been taking lithium daily for treatment of bipolar disorder. Brain CT showed no specific abnormality, and serum lithium and ammonia levels were 3.63 mEq/L (therapeutic range, 0.6~1.2 mEq/L) and $85{mu}g/dL$ (reference range: $19{sim}54{mu}g/dL$), respectively. Therefore, the initial differential diagnosis included chronic lithium intoxication, hepatic encephalopathy, Wernicke encephalopathy, or alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Even with the provision of adequate hydration, the patient's neurologic status did not show improvement, so that lactulose enema, thiamine replacement, and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) were started on the third admission day. By the fifth admission day he had made a rapid neurologic recovery, and was discharged on the 20th admission day. Therefore, CVVHDF might be a treatment for patients with chronic lithium intoxication, because, even if serum lithium concentration is normal, lithium concentration in the brain may be different from that of the serum.
Cardiac Toxicities Associated with Herbal Remedies
Woo-Jin Jung, Hyun Kim, Yong-Sung Cha, Oh-Hyun Kim, Kyoung-Chul Cha, Kang-Hyun Lee, Sung-Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2012;10(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2012
  • 70 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Herbal preparations have long been used for medical purposes by traditional cultures, and their use is increasing in modern societies. However, many herbal agents produce specific cardiovascular toxicities in humans. We performed this study in order to investigate the clinical characteristics of the cardiac toxicities associated with herbal remedies. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 45 patients (mean age $57{pm}10$ years) who presented with cardiotoxicity between January 2007 and May 2011 due to ingestion of herbal remedy substances. Patients were identified as suffering cardiotoxicity if they presented with chest pain, EKG abnormality, and elevation of cardiac enzyme. Results: Of the 45 total cases, 17 included hemodynamic instability (37.8%), 7 with increasing cardiac enzyme (15.6%), 2 with cardiac arrest (4.4%) and one case of mortality (2.2%). The cardiotoxic herb group that demonstrated the worst clinical course was Ranunculaceae. Conclusions: In our study results, 57.6% of the herbal intoxication patients demonstrated the effects of cardiotoxicity. Thus, we recommend careful monitoring of herbal intoxication patients.
Multicenter Survey of Intoxication Cases in Korean Emergency Departments: 2nd Annual Report, 2009
Ae-Jin Sung, Kyung-Woo Lee, Byung-Hak So, Mi-Jin Lee, Hyun Kim, Kyung-Hye Park, Jeong-Bae Park, Seok-Ran Yeom, Seong-Beom Oh, Ji-Young You, Kyung-Won Lee, Byeong-Jo Chun, Young-Joon Kang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2012;10(1):22-32.   Published online June 30, 2012
  • 77 View
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of toxic exposure cases in Korean emergency centers using a toxic exposure surveillance system-based report form and to provide guidelines for the prevention and treatment of toxic exposures. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of toxic exposure patients who had visited emergency centers from January 2009 to December 2009. Epidemiology data points for the toxic exposure cases included age, gender, type of exposure, number and kind of substances involved, reason and route of poison exposure, management of the patients in the emergency departments, and the clinical outcome. Results: A total of 3,501 patients from 12 emergency departments were enrolled in the study. 50.0% of the total exposure patients were male and 63.0% of the total cases were fatal. Acute intoxication occurred in 91.3% of the total patients and suicidal intent was the most common (43.3%) reason for exposure. The most common route of exposure was ingestion (75.9%). Of the total cases, pesticides were involved in 26.3%, sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics were involved in 22.0%, and bites and envenomations were involved in 15.7%. Conclusion: We provided a database of patients who were admitted to emergency departments after poisoning incidents. We recommend that toxicology professionals develop a classification scheme for toxicants which is adequate for Korean domestic circumstances and initiate a toxic surveillance system for all types of exposures. With support of a psychiatric surveillance system for suicidal patients and establishment of social mediation for pesticide poisoning, major reductions in poison exposures can be achieved.
Three Cases of Cardiac Toxicity after Intake of Symplocarpus Renifolius
Tae-Hoon Kim, Hyun Kim, Oh-Hyun Kim, Yong-Sung Cha, Kyoung-Chul Cha, Kang-Hyun Lee, Sung-Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2012;10(1):41-45.   Published online June 30, 2012
  • 82 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Recently, some patients have visited the emergency department for treatment of different symptoms of acute poisoning after intake of unidentified herbs, which can be mistaken for wild edible greens, because wild edible greens are good for health and contain vitamins, enzymes, minerals, fibers, and anticancer materials. Winter or early spring, is extremely high, with rapid onset of severe symptoms of poisoning. There have been no reports of poisoning by SymplocarpusRenifolius in Korea, however, we report on three severe cases involving patients who experienced cardiogenic shock with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, chest discomfort, dizziness, numbness, and general weakness.
Comparison between Emergency Patient Poisoning Cases and the Tox-Info System Database
Hyun-Jong Kim, Yang-Weon Kim, Hyun Kim, Chang-Bae Park, Byung-Hak So, Kyeong-Ryong Lee, Kyung-Woo Lee, Kyung-Won Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Jang-Young Lee, Gyu-Chong Cho, Jun-Ho Cho, Sung-Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2012;10(1):8-14.   Published online June 30, 2012
  • 69 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The Tox-Info system is a poisonous substance information database developed by the Korean National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation. The aim of this study was to estimate the coverage effectiveness of the Tox-Info system by comparing the toxic substances included in the database with the distribution of the toxic substances implicated in the cases of intoxicated patients presenting to emergency departments. The secondary aim of the study was to propose any additional substances that should be added to the database. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients suffering with toxic exposure who had visited any of 12 selected emergency departments in Korea from January 2010 to December 2011. The identified toxic substances were classified into groups including prescription drugs, agricultural chemicals, household products, animals or plants, herbal drugs, and others. We calculated the coverage rate of the Tox-Info database relative to the number of intoxication cases and the type of toxic substances involved. Results: A total of 5,840 intoxicated patient records were collected. Their mean age was $46.6{pm}20.5$ years and 56.2% were female. Of the total intoxication cases, 87.8% of the identified toxic substances were included in the Tox-Info database, while only 41.6% of all of the types of identified toxic substances were included. Broken down by category, 122 prescription drugs, 15 agricultural chemicals, 12 household products, 14 animals or plants and 2 herbal drugs involved in poisoning cases were not included in the Tox-info database. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the clinical usefulness of the Tox-Info system. While 87.8% of the substances involved in the cases were included in the Tox-Info database, the database should be continuously updated in order to include even the most uncommon toxic substances.
Atypical Clinical Course of after Glyphosate Herbicide Intoxication
Yong-Won Kim, Hyun Kim, Kyoung-Chul Cha, Hyung-Jin Shin, Yong-Sung Cha, Kang-Hyun Lee, Sung-Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2011;9(1):8-13.   Published online June 30, 2011
  • 71 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Although glyphosate-surfactant herbicide intoxication is relatively mild toxic in humans, we encountered an atypical clinical presentation. We performed this study to understand the atypical clinical course and factors associated with severe intoxication after glyphosate ingestion. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 61 patients (male 43, mean age $54{pm}18.8$ years) who were presented with glyphosate ingestion between March 1997 and March 2011. The severe intoxication group was defined as patients with systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg, respiratory distress needing intubation, or altered mental state. Results: Of the 61 patients, 22 patients (36.1%) had a severe clinical course, 1 patient (1.6%) had died and 1 patient (1.6%) had moribund discharge. The most common symptoms were nausea with or without vomiting which occurred in 30 patients (49.2%). Twenty-seven patients had metabolic acidosis that was the second most common medical complication. Advanced age, pH, base excess, $HCO_3$, Sat, creatinine, X-ray abnormalities and ECG abnormalities were significant factors. Hemoglobin, platelet, $pO_2$, $pCO_2$, BUN, sodium, potassium and AST levels were not different comparing the laboratory characteristics between the severe and mild intoxication groups. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that severe intoxication occurred in 22 patients (36.1%) after glyphosate intoxication. Advanced age, pH, base excess, $HCO_3$, Sat, creatinine, X-ray abnormality and ECG abnormalities were significant predictive factors for severe intoxication in patients with glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning.
2008 Database of Korean Toxic Exposures: A Preliminary Study
Byung-Hak So, Mi-Jin Lee, Hyun Kim, Jeong-Mi Moon, Kyung-Hye Park, Ae-Jin Sung, Seok-Ran Yeom, Seong-Beom Oh, Ji-Young You, Kyung-Woo Lee, Kyung-Won Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2010;8(2):51-60.   Published online December 31, 2010
  • 69 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate toxic exposures in emergency centers with using a toxic exposure surveillance system-based report form as a preliminary study. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of toxic exposure patients who visited emergency centers from January to December 2008. Results: 3,157 patients from 11 emergency centers were enrolled. Males were involved in 47.9% of the total cases of exposure and in 60.1% of the cases of fatal exposure. Suicidal intent was the most common (61.0%) reason and most (87.4%) fatal exposures were suicidal. Pesticides were involved in 30.7% of the cases and sedative/hypnotics/antipsychotics were involved in 20.5%. The substances most frequently involved in fatalities were pesticides, and a 48.4% fatality rate was recorded for paraquat exposure. Conclusion: The toxic exposure data showed the preliminary poisoning events in emergency centers. It is recommended that toxicology professionals should develop a toxic surveillance system and serial reporting should be performed.
Treatment with the Taylor Cyanide Antidote Package after Cyanide Poisoning: Case Report
Beam-Gyu Cho, Han-Joo Choi, Yang-Soo Jang, Tae-Yang Shin, Kang-Hyun Lee, Sung-Oh Hwang, Hyun Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):57-60.   Published online June 30, 2007
  • 73 View
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Cyanide has been well known from antiquity. Cyanide poisoning causes histotoxic hypoxia--inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase with disruption of the ability of cells to use oxygen. The mortality rate is 95% within 30 minutes. Acute cyanide poisoning is mostly the result of attempted suicide, and because of the high doses typically employed it usually is lethal within minutes. Also acute cyanide poisoning leads to a very poor prognosis because medical personnel can't detect cyanide intoxication and so many hospital haven't antidote. We report two cases of cyanide poisoning which responded well to treatment with the Taylor cyanide antidote package.
Resuscitation Outcomes and Clinical Characteristics of Out-of-Hospital Drug Induced Cardiac Arrest
Yun Kwon Kim, Hyun Kim, Ho Kyong Won, Kwon Il Lee, Sung Bum Oh, Joong Bum Moon, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):93-98.   Published online December 31, 2005
  • 72 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study was to investigate the resuscitation outcomes and the clinical characteristics of non-traumatic drug-induced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by analyzing data from a single institution's registry. Method: We conducted a retrospective study of 795 patients who came to the emergency department with non-traumatic drug-induced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during the period $1991{~}2004$. Only patients over 18 years of age were included. Clinical characteristics. variables associated with cardiac arrest, and data during resuscitation were obtained from our cardiac arrest database. Patients were divided into two groups: drug-induced cardiac arrest (drug group, n=33), and non drug-induced cardiac arrest (non-drug group, n=762). Results: Spontaneous circulation was restored in 23 ($72{\%}$) patients in the drug group and in 314 ($45{\%}$) patients in the non-drug group ($x^2=0.020$). The patients who discharged alive number were 46 ($6{\%}$) in the non-drug group and 0 ($0{\%}$) in the drug group ($x^2=0.005$). The witnessed arrest, the epinephrine doses, and total defibrillation energy were not different between two groups. Conclusion: The return of spontaneous circulation rate was higher in the drug group than the non-drug group. However the drug group was lower survival discharge rate than in the non-drug group.
A Case of Cantharidin Poisoning after the Ingestion of Herbal Medicine
Ho Jin Ji, Hyun Kim, Sun Hyu Kim, Sung Bum Oh, Joong Bum Moon, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(1):56-59.   Published online June 30, 2005
  • 78 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Blister beetles produce cantharidin, which is toxic to people and animals. Cantharidin has been believed to be an aphrodisiac and an abortifacient based on its tendency to cause marked irritation to the genitourinary system leading to priapism in men and pelvic congestion in women for many years. Cantharidin was used by oriental traditional medicine for more than 2000 years. Typical signs related to cantharidin ingestion are gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract irritation, endotoxemia, shock and myocardial dysfunction. Cantharidin is a severe irritant to epithelial linings (gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and skin) and develop systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We report a case of corrosive esophagogastritis and acute renal failure by ingestion of cantharidin.
Effects of Alcohol in Intoxicated Patients
Hyun Kim, Ho Kyong Won, Ho Jung Kim, Seo Young Lee, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(2):96-100.   Published online December 31, 2004
  • 85 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study was to investigate the effects of ethanol in ingested patients by analyzing data from a single institution's registry, Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 50 patients who has ingested drugs with/without ethanol came to emergency department from January 2004 to May 2004. Only patients over 18 years of age were included. Clinical characteristics, general and specific treatment, laboratory finding, complication, and clinical outcomes were obtained from protocol. Patients were divided into two groups: drug ingested with alcohol (ethanol group, n=18), and ingested without alcohol (non-ethanol group, n=32). Results: The age, the amout of ingestion, the time to treatment, the systolic blood pressure, the diastolic blood pressure and the shock duration were not different between two groups. The AST level with the ethanol group was higher than with the non-ethanol group ($230.94pm518.88$ U/L vs $43.22pm63.39$ U/L, p=0.002). The ALT level with the ethanol group was higher than with the non-ethanol group ($97.06pm152.98$ U/L vs $32.75pm43.10$ U/L, p=0.001). The lactic acid level with the ethanol group was higher than with the non-ethanol group ($7.40pm6.33$ mmol/L vs $3.77pm3.10$ mmol/L, p=0.001). The hospital stay duration and the admission rate were not different between two groups. Conlusions: The ethanol increased the levels of serum AST, ALT and lactic acid in intoxicated patients. But the ethanol dose not increase admission rate and duration of admission stay in intoxicated patients.
Myopericarditis by an Ingestion of Hydrofluoric acid - A case report
Sun Hyu Kim, Hyun Kim, Ho Jin Ji, Yong Soo Jang, Sung Bum Oh, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(1):63-66.   Published online June 30, 2004
  • 74 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hydrofluoric acid (HF), one of the strongest inorganic acids, is used mainly for industrial purpose. Hydrofluoric acid injuries has a potential for both systemic as well as severe local tissue destruction. One of the most serious consequences of severe exposure to HF by any route is marked lowering of serum calcium (hypocalcemia) and other metabolic changes, such as hypomagnesemia and which may result in a fatal outcome if not recognized and treated. promptly cardiotoxicity is not well known except arrhythmias, which are a primary cause of death. We report a case of myopericarditis by ingestion of hydrofluoric acid.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology