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Heung-Soo Kim 1 Article
Dialysis Related Treatment to Increase Elimination of Toxic Agent
Heung-Soo Kim, Gyu-Tae Shin
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2003;1(1):6-11.   Published online June 30, 2003
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Various forms of dialytic techniques are available for detoxification. Hemodialysis, hemoperfusion and hemofiltration (hemodialfiltration) are the main treatment modalities. Because these modalities are rather invasive and expensive, it must be decided in balance of the risk and benefit to the patient. The prime consideration in the decision is based on the clinical features of poisoning; hemodialysis or hemoperfusion should be considered in general if the patient's condition progressively deteriorates despite intensive supportive therapy. The hemodialysis technique relies on passage of the toxic agent through a semipermeable membrane so that it can equilibrate with the dialysate and subsequently removed. It needs a blood pump to pass blood next to a dialysis membrane, which allows agents permeable to the membrane to pass through and reach equilibrium. Solute (or drug) removal by dialysis has numerous determinants such as solute size, its lipid solubility, the degree to which it is protein bound, its volume of distribution etc. The technique of hemoperfusion is similar to hemodialysis except there is no dialysis membrane or dialysate involved in the procedure. The patient's blood is pumped through a perfusion cartridge, where it is in direct contact with adsorptive material (usually activated charcoal) that has a coating material such as cellulose. This method can be used successfully with lipid-soluble compounds and with higher-molecular-weight compounds than for hemodialysis. Protein binding does not significantly interfere with removal by hemoperfusion. In conclusion, hemodialysis, hemoperfusion and hemofiltration can be used effectively as adjuncts to the management of severely intoxicated patients.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology