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Hahn Shick Lee 6 Articles
L-carnitine vs Extracorporeal Elimination for Acute Valproic acid Intoxication: A Systematic Review
Byung Keun Yang, Jae Eun Ku, Young Seon Joo, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung, Hahn Shick Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2014;12(2):39-45.   Published online December 31, 2014
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the evidence comparing the efficacy and safety between L-carnitine and extracorporeal elimination therapy in the management of acute valproic acid L-carnitine vs Extracorporeal Elimination for Acute Valproic acid Intoxication Methods: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, Web of Science, KoreaMed, KMbase, and KISS were searched, using the terms carnitine and valproic acid. All studies, regardless of design, reporting efficacy or safety endpoints were included. Reference citations from identified publications were reviewed. Both English and Korean languages were included. Two authors extracted primary data elements including poisoning severity, presenting features, clinical management, and outcomes. Results: Thirty two articles including 33 cases were identified. Poisoning severity was classified as 3 mild, 11 moderate, and 19 severe cases. Nine cases were treated with L-carnitine while 24 cases received extracorporeal therapy without L-carnitine. All patients except one expired patient treated with hemodialysis recovered clinically and no adverse effects were noted. A case report comparing two patients who ingested the same amount of valproic acid showed increased ICU stay (3 vs 11 days) in case of delayed extracorporeal therapy. Conclusion: Published evidence comparing L-carnitine with extracorporeal therapy is limited. Based on the available evidence, it is reasonable to consider L-carnitine for patients with acute valproic acid overdose. In case of severe poisoning, extracorporeal therapy would also be considered in the early phase of treatment.
A Systematic Review of Injury or Poisoning Related to Mercury Thermometer
Yo Seop Lee, Young Seon Joo, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung, Hyun Soo Chung, Hahn Shick Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2014;12(1):22-30.   Published online June 30, 2014
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Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence regarding injury and poisoning associated with the clinical mercury thermometer. Methods: Electronic literature searches were conducted for identification of relevant studies and case reports of injury and poisoning associated with the clinical mercury thermometer. The search outcomes were limited to literature with English and Korean languages published from 1966. Studies related to occupational mercury exposure, or mercury exposure from sphygmomanometer, barometer, and fluorescent light were excluded. Results: A total of 60 reports, including 59 case reports, were finally included. Of those, nine cases pertained to an intact thermometer as a foreign body, 25 injuries were related to a thermometer, and 26 cases involved exposures to mercury from a broken thermometer. Case reports were classified according to severity into 16 mild, 41 moderate, and two severe cases. Two cases of mortality were reported, one was deliberate intravenous injection of mercury and the other was acute vapor inhalation of mercury from broken thermometers. Conclusion: Findings of this systematic review suggested that the mercury thermometer could cause various forms of poisoning and injury. In particular, inhalation of mercury vapor from a broken thermometer can lead to systemic toxicity requiring chelating therapy.
Two Cases of Intoxication with Phentermine
Jae Eun Ku, Young Seon Joo, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung, Hahn Shick Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2014;12(1):35-38.   Published online June 30, 2014
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Phentermine has been widely used as an appetite suppressant since 2004 in Korea. The authors experienced two cases of acute phentermine overdose and report with the literature review. A 36-year-old man and a 24-year-old woman presented together to the emergency department with taking 13 tablets (390 mg) of phentermine 16 hours ago. They had tachycardia, hypertension and complained visual symptoms, nausea, insomnia and anxiety. These symptoms were resolved by conservative management.
Clinical Characteristics of Intentional Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Min Ki Cho, Yang Weon Kim, Kyeong Ryong Lee, Kyung Woo Lee, Jang Young Lee, Gyu Chong Cho, Junho Cho, Hyun Jong Kim, Seong Hwan Kim, Sung Phil Chung, Hahn Shick Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2012;10(2):73-79.   Published online December 31, 2012
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the changes in the characteristics of patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, as well as the distinctive differences in intentionally exposed patients. Methods: The medical records of CO poisoning patients, who visited nine emergency departments between January 2010 and December 2011, were reviewed retrospectively. The clinical information including age, gender, hospitalization, type of discharge, cause and location of exposure, site of onset, concentration of initial blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), methods of treatment and presence of neurological complications was examined. The subjects were divided into an intentional and non-intentional group and the differences between them was compared. Results: A total 209 subjects were recruited. The median age was 38 years (29~49.5 years). They frequently complained of nausea and vomiting, and the most common exposures occurred in winter, normally in the home. The cause of exposure was usually fire, followed by incomplete combustion of fuels. The median initial blood COHb was 13.15%. The proportion of intentionally exposed patients was 21%. They were significantly younger, more frequently discharged against medical advice, and showed a higher initial blood COHb level (22.85%) than the non-intentional group. Conclusion: This study suggests that those with intentional CO poisoning are normally discharged against medical advice even when they have a higher initial COHb level. An adequate explanation of the delayed neurologic sequelae and short term follow-up observation is recommended for those patients with intentional exposure.
Oral vs. Intravenous Administration of N-acetylcysteine in the Acetaminophen Poisoning
Hyo Ju Chae, Nu Ga Rhee, Hyun Jong Kim, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung, Hahn Shick Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2012;10(2):97-102.   Published online December 31, 2012
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Purpose: Serious acetaminophen (AAP) poisoning causes hepatotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the most effective therapy for AAP poisoning and can be administered orally and intravenously (IV). Several studies have compared the efficacy of these two routes of administration and the results have been controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of oral and IV NAC for the prevention of hepatic toxicity in Korean patients whose serum AAP levels were higher than normal. Methods: A retrospective before/after study was performed, in which the patients presented to the emergency department with an AAP overdose from February 1995 to March 2012. A 3-day oral NAC regimen was used in the beginning, and a 20-hr intravenous regimen was then used from 2007. This study assessed the complications of an AAP overdose, such as hepatotoxicity, hepatic failure and renal failure as well as the side effects of the treatment regimen. Results: A total of 41patients was enrolled in this study. The median ALT and AST were 63 (IU/L) and 57 (IU/L) for the oral NAC treated patients, and 14 (IU/L) and 20 (IU/L) for the IV NAC treated patients (p=0.004 and p=0.001, respectively). The incidence of complications was similar in the treatment groups (p=0.399). Among the patients, 7 patients developed hepatotoxicity and were treated successfully with oral or IV NAC. Conclusion: This study suggests that IV NAC and oral NAC can prevent and successfully treat hepatic toxicity in patients whose serum AAP levels are higher than normal.
Analysis of 2002 year's Pesticides Poisoning Deaths' data of Korea National Statistical Office and Counterplan to Prevent Deaths Due to Herbicides Poisoning
Uk Jin Kim, Hyo Yun Kim, Seung Hwan Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Young Soon Cho, Sung Pil Chung, Hahn Shick Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(2):77-82.   Published online December 31, 2004
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Background
s: Deaths from pesticides poisoning has increased annually, but no studies have been reported. Especially paraquat is suspected to be a major material in pesticide poisoning deaths. In Korea, simple epidemiology of pesticides poisoning is not well known. So, there is no effective method to prevent pesticides poisoning. We tried to investigate the present status of pesticides poisoning with data from Korea National Statistical Office and suggest an effective counterplan. Methods: We analysed death cause data derived from Korean Statistical association, deaths causes being pesticides poisoning in the year 2002. Also, we investigated data from internet, mainly from Korea National Statistical Office home page. Results: Total 2,875 persons died after pesticides poisoning in 2002 year. Average age is 54.2 year, standard deviation being 17.7 year. Many victims (about $41\%$) died during the herbicides' non-necessary period (JanuaryMarch, October-December) Conclusion: Herbicides sale should be restricted only during herbicides' necessary period, and so called a pesticides safety supervisor system shall effectively prevent herbicides poisoning.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology